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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Diabetes mellitus, nitrosamines, nitroso-compounds, Areca catechu, Betel nut, inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Many mutagenic nitroso compounds are also diabetogenic. Betel-nut (Areca catechu) chewing populations have an increased incidence of foregut cancers related to betel-nut nitrosamines which suggests that betel consumption could be diabetogenic. Young adult CD1 mice with a low spontaneous incidence of diabetes were fed betel nut in standard feed for 2–6 days. Single point (90 min) intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests were used to follow glucose tolerance up to 6 months of age. Glucose intolerance was defined as over 3 SD above mean control values. Glucose intolerance was found in 3 of 51 male and 4 of 33 female adult mice which were fed the betel diet (p 〈0.01). Studies on the progeny of these mice are presented separately for animals studied in Aberdeen (Group 1) and London (Group 2). In matings of Group 1 betel-fed parents glucose intolerance was found in 4 of 25 male and 1 of 22 female F1 offspring, with significant hyperglycaemia in F1 males born to hyperglycaemic but not to normoglycaemic mothers (p 〈0.01). In the F2 generation 4 of 23 males and 1 of 16 females and in the F3 generation 1 of 16 males and 0 of 20 females were glucose intolerant. In the Group 2 studies where betel-fed parents were mated to normal controls glucose intolerance was found in 10 of 35 male and 10 of 33 female F1 progeny (p 〈0.005), and mean islet areas were increased in offspring of betel-fed parents (p 〈0.001). The total incidence of glucose intolerance in F1 progeny from studies in Groups 1 and 2 was 14 of 60 males and 11 of 55 females (p 〈0.005). Insulin dependence did not develop in the glucose-intolerant betel-fed animals or their descendants; affected animals appearing well built and active. The development of glucose intolerance in F1 offspring was not dependent on maternal glucose intolerance or on maternal betel-feeding, and 90-min glucose levels of F1 offspring were directly related to paternal but not to maternal glycaemia (p 〈0.01). Our findings suggest that betel-nut (Areca) consumption may be diabetogenic and induce an inheritable abnormality. The hypothesis is of interest in view of the widespread habit of betel consumption and of the strategies known to inhibit the induction of experimental diabetes by diabetogenic nitroso compounds. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 49–55]
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Obese hyperglycaemic mice ; liver lipids ; fatty acids ; linoleic acid ; ketogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Certains des aspects du métabolisme des graisses et de la cétogenèse ont été examinés chez des souris hyperglycémiques obèses, leurs compagnons de portée non-obèses et chez des souris normales. La proportion des lipides totaux du foie s'est révélée comme étant la plus grande chez les souris obèses, et la composition d'acide gras des lipides totaux du foie a fait apparaotre chez les souris obèses une proportion d'acide linoléique qui était largement réduite par rapport aux autres groupes. Des homogénats de foie complet ont montré des taux de lipolyse de graisse endogene peu élevés, mais des homogénats de foie dégraissé ont montré une lipolyse rapide de monoglyceride ajoutée. Les taux d'acide gras libre dans les foies des souris obèses étaient plus bas que ceux de leurs compagnons de portée ou des souris normales. La production cétonique totale des tranches de foie provenant des souris obèses était moins élevée que celle des souris normales. Il en a été conclu que la production de corps cétoniques chez les souris obèses était liée aux taux d'acide gras libre du foie plutôt qu'aux lipides du foie total.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Einige Aspekte des Fettstoffwechsels und der Ketogenese wurden bei fetten hyperglykämischen Mäusen, ihren nichtfetten Wurfgeschwistern und normalen Mäusen untersucht. Der Anteil der Gesamtle-berlipide war am größten bei den fetten Mäusen; die Fettsäurenzusammensetzung der Lebergesamtlipide zeigte einen stark reduzierten Anteil der Linolsäure bei fetten Mäusen, wenn man sie mit den andern Gruppen verglich. Die Gesamtleber-Homogenate zeigten niedrige Quoten der Lipolyse endogenen Fettes, aber entfettete Leberhomogenate zeigten eine schnelle Lipolyse zugesetzter Monoglyceride. Der Spiegel der freien Fettsäuren in den Lebern fetter Mäuse war niedriger als bei den Wurfgeschwistern oder bei normalen Mäusen. Die Gesamtketonkörper-Produktion von Leberschnitten fetter Mäuse war niedriger als bei normalen Mäusen. Es wird der Schluß gezogen, daß die Ketonkörperproduktion fetter Mäuse eher auf das Niveau der freien Fettsäuren der Leber als auf die Gesamtleberlipide zu beziehen ist.
    Notes: Summary Some aspects of fat metabolism and ketogenesis have been investigated in obese hyperglycaemic mice, their non-obese littermates and normal mice. The proportion of total liver lipids was greatest in the obese mice, and the fatty acid composition of the liver total lipids showed a greatly reduced proportion of linoleic acid in the obese mice when compared with the other groups. Whole liver homogenates showed low rates of lipolysis of endogenous fat, but defatted liver homogenates showed a rapid lipolysis of added monoglyceride. Free fatty acid levels in the livers of obese mice were lower than in littermates or in normal mice. Total ketone production by liver slices from obese mice was lower than from normal mice. It was concluded that ketone production by the obese mice was related to liver free fatty acid levels rather than to total liver lipid.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperosmolar diabetic coma ; erythrocytes ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a study of 10 diabetic patients, each of whom was in a severely decompensated state, notable alteration of blood flow properties was observed in those six patients who were hyperosmolar. In this form of diabetic decompensation, whole blood filtration was distinctly impaired. The additional impairment was shown to be due to an accumulation of solute within the erythrocytes occurring as a consequence of hyper-osmolarity. The alterations in erythrocytes were revealed by Coulter blood count abnormalities and confirmed by osmotic fragility studies. When biochemical improvement was achieved in these patients, rapid resolution of the erythrocyte abnormalities occurred. Microvascular ischaemia due to such erythrocyte alterations may be a possible explanation for the characteristic cerebral disturbances of the hyperosmolar diabetic state. Altered blood flow properties would also promote vascular thrombosis, a common terminal event in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome with associated 50 per cent mortality. An improved design of the insulin and fluid replacement therapy for patients in hyperosmolar diabetic coma might be based on the findings of these and further studies.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 23 (1982), S. 287-287 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic pregnancy ; insulin antibodies ; insulin species and purity ; infant mortality and morbidity ; cord C-peptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Antibodies to insulin were found in 92% of the 138 insulin-treated pregnant diabetic patients studied. No effect of pregnancy was shown on insulin antibody levels. Higher insulin antibody levels were significantly associated with the previous use of conventional insulins. Change from conventional to highly purified porcine insulin during pregnancy produced a significant reduction in insulin antibody levels. The combination of protamine zinc and soluble insulin used before pregnancy was found to be the most immunogenic. Insulin ntibodies were freely transferred to the fetus but not detectable after the first 8 months of life. No insulin antibodies were found in the cord blood or during the next few weeks in the infants of mothers who had no antibodies to their injected insulin. There was a tendency for higher insulin antibody levels to be associated with indices of neonatal morbidity but not with percentile birth weights and C-peptide levels in cord sera.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 583-584 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Coulter mean red cell volume ; diabetes ; blood glucose ; glycosylated haemoglobin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Coulter mean red cell volume was found to be significantly elevated in a sample of 100 diabetic patients compared with 200 normal subjects (p 〈 0.01). There was no correlation between the mean red cell volume level and the type of diabetes, its method of treatment or degree of control as measured by random blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ; nitrosamines ; nitrosocompounds ; Areca catechu ; Betel nut ; inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Many mutagenic nitroso compounds are also diabetogenic. Betel-nut (Areca catechu) chewing populations have an increased incidence of foregut cancers related to betel-nut nitrosamines which suggests that betel consumption could be diabetogenic. Young adult CD1 mice with a low spontaneous incidence of diabetes were fed betel nut in standard feed for 2–6 days. Single point (90 min) intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests were used to follow glucose tolerance up to 6 months of age. Glucose intolerance was defined as over 3 SD above mean control values. Glucose intolerance was found in 3 of 51 male and 4 of 33 female adult mice which were fed the betel diet (p〈0.01). Studies on the progeny of these mice are presented separately for animals studied in Aberdeen (Group 1) and London (Group 2). In matings of Group 1 betel-fed parents glucose intolerance was found in 4 of 25 male and 1 of 22 female F1 offspring, with significant hyperglycaemia in F1 males born to hyperglycaemic but not to normoglycaemic mothers (p〈0.01). In the F2 generation 4 of 23 males and 1 of 16 females and in the F3 generation 1 of 16 males and 0 of 20 females were glucose intolerant. In the Group 2 studies where betel-fed parents were mated to normal controls glucose intolerance was found in 10 of 35 male and 10 of 33 female Fl progeny (p〈0.005), and mean islet areas were increased in offspring of betel-fed parents (p〈0.001). The total incidence of glucose intolerance in Fl progeny from studies in Groups 1 and 2 was 14 of 60 males and 11 of 55 females (p〈0.005). Insulin dependence did not develop in the glucose-intolerant betel-fed animals or their descendants; affected animals appearing well built and active. The development of glucose intolerance in F1 offspring was not dependent on maternal glucose intolerance or on maternal betel-feeding, and 90-min glucose levels of F1 offspring were directly related to paternal but not to maternal glycaemia (p〈0.01). Our findings suggest that betelnut (Areca) consumption may be diabetogenic and induce an inheritable abnormality. The hypothesis is of interest in view of the widespread habit of betel consumption and of the strategies known to inhibit the induction of experimental diabetes by diabetogenic nitroso compounds.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A new and specific method is used for the measurement of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in pregnancy. Fasting plasma FFA and glucose concentrations were measured serially in twenty normal and twelve overweight women in pregnancy and related to infant birth weight. Large variation between individuals was noted for FFA and no change was found with advancing gestation. Studies of the day-to-day variation in the same women at 20 and 36 weeks gestation showed wide variations in concentrations. No significant change in glucose concentration was noted with advancing gestation, but postnatal values were significantly higher. Small variability of glucose concentrations was noted in both the serial and day-to-day studies. In normal-weight women a positive correlation between the observed birth weight of their infants and the fasting plasma glucose levels was found at 20 and 40 weeks and also with the mean of 5 levels measured in pregnancy. No similar correlation was found for the group of overweight women.
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