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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Recombinant human interferon-λ production by Chinese hamster ovary cells was restricted to the growth phase of batch cultures in serum-free medium. The specific interferon production rate was highest during the initial period of exponential growth but declined subsequently in parallel with specific growth rate. This decline in specific growth rate and interferon productivity was associated with a decline in specific metabolic activity as determined by the rate of glucose uptake and the rates of lactate and ammonia production. The ammonia and lactate concentrations that had accumulated by the end of the batch culture were not inhibitory to growth. Glucose was exhausted by the end of the growth phase but increased glucose concentrations did not improve the cell yield or interferon production kinetics. Analysis of amino acid metabolism showed that glutamine and asparagine were exhausted by the end of the growth phase, but supplementation of these amino acids did not improve either cell or product yields. When glutamine was omitted from the growth medium there was no cell proliferation but interferon production occurred, suggesting that recombinant protein production can be uncoupled from cell proliferation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Three serine residues (Ser193, Ser194, Ser197) in the fifth transmembrane-spanning region of the D2 dopamine receptor have been mutated separately to alanine and the effects of the mutations determined in ligand-binding experiments with [3H]spiperone. For many antagonists the mutations had little effect, showing that the overall conformation of the mutant receptors was similar to that of the native, although there were effects on the binding of certain antagonists. The effect of the mutations on agonist binding to the free receptor (uncoupled from G proteins) was determined in the presence of GTP (100 µM). This showed that there was no single mode of binding of catecholamine agonists to the receptor and that all three serine residues can participate in the binding of some agonists, possibly through hydrogen bonds to the catechol hydroxyl groups. Coupling of the mutant receptors to G proteins was assessed from agonist-binding curves in the absence of GTP, when higher and lower affinity agonist-binding sites were seen. Receptor/G protein coupling was generally unaffected by the Ala193 and Ala194 mutations, but the Ala197 mutation eliminated receptor/G protein coupling for some agonists. These data show that the interactions of agonists with the free and coupled forms of the receptor are different.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-4804
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Mechanisms of agonist action at the G protein-coupled D2(short) dopamine receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells have been investigated. Agonist binding was assayed in the presence and absence of GTP (100 µM). Data in the absence of GTP were fitted best by a two-site model (apomorphine, dopamine, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-n-propylnorapomorphine hydrochloride, and quinpirole) or a one-site model [bromocriptine, dihydroergocristine, and (−)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine hydrochloride], whereas in the presence of GTP a one-site model was the best fit for all compounds. Agonist binding parameters were used to provide a measure of the ability of the agonist to stabilise the ternary complex of agonist/receptor/G protein. Agonist stimulation of [35S]guanosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ([35S]-GTPγS) binding for a range of agonist concentrations was measured and the EC50 and maximal effects determined. The initial rates of [35S]GTPγS binding induced by maximally stimulating agonist concentrations were also recorded. Simultaneous inhibition of agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding and receptor occupancy by spiperone was determined. Agonist inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was determined for a range of agonist concentrations and the EC50 and maximal inhibition recorded. The data on the maximal agonist responses showed that it was possible to detect a spectrum of agonist efficacy (partial and full agonism) in both functional assays. The data on the apparent potencies of agonists to elicit the functional responses showed that different extents of amplification of response were seen for different agonists in both assays. The maximal activity data have been compared with the stabilisation of the agonist/receptor/G protein ternary complex as measured in binding assays.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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