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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Autologous bone marrow transplantation with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC)-purged bone marrow gives long-term remission in almost half of relapsed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, but relapse of disease is the main cause of failure, suggesting ineffective purging in some cases. Cisplatin (CP) has activity against a variety of human tumors and is not commonly used for initial therapy of leukemia and lymphoma. Using established human leukemia cell lines, combinations of 4-HC and CP were investigated as a potential regimen for improving the ex vivo removal of leukemia cells from bone marrow. The cell lines (K-562 and Raji) were incubated for 1 (4-HC) or 4 h (CP), washed, and assayed for inhibition of colony formation in semisolid media. In both cell lines, CP (4 h) was more potent than 4-HC (1 h). Combinations of the drugs in various molar ratios were studied after the cells were sequentially incubated with 4-HC and CP. The effects of the drugs were analyzed using the multiple drug-effect analysis of Chou and Talalay [6]. Analysis of data on in vitro inhibition of colony formation suggested that all combinations studied were synergistic in both cell lines, with the greatest synergism being found in the Raji cell line. In addition, for K-562 cells we could detect at least a 4.6 log reduction in cloning with the CP:4-HC combination (1:10 molar ratio). We conclude that CP is a potential candidate in drug combinations for ex vivo bone marrow purging because of its high potency against human leukemia cell lines, its synergistic activity in combination with 4-HC, and its ability to reduce a high tumor burden when combined with 4-HC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; locally advanced ; neoadjuvant ; chemotherapy ; paclitaxel ; cisplatin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background.In an earlier study, we have demonstrated a high response rate in metastatic breast cancer using paclitaxel (P) and cisplatin (C). A phase II study using the same regimen (PC) has been conducted in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods.A total of 72 consecutive patients with non-inflammatory LABC (T2 ≥ 4 cm, T3 or T4, N0–N2, M0). Patients were scheduled to receive 3–4 cycles of the neoadjuvant PC (paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1) every 21 days. Patients were then subjected to surgery and subsequently received 6 cycles of FAC (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) or 4 cycles of AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2). Patients then received radiation therapy, and those with hormone receptor positive tumors were given adjuvant tamoxifen intended for 5 years. Results.The median age was 39 years (range, 24–78). Clinically, 7%, 58%, and 35% of patients had T2 ≥ 4 cm, T3, and T4, respectively. Disease stage at diagnosis was IIB (33%), IIIA (27%), and IIIB (40%). Complete and partial clinical response to PC was demonstrated in 13 (18%), and 52 (72%) patients, respectively. Of those patients with evaluable pathologic response (68 patients), complete pathologic response (pCR) was achieved in 15 (22%) patients. At a median follow-up of 22 (± 3.5) months, 58 (81%) were alive with no recurrence, nine (12%) were alive with evidence of disease, and five (7%) were dead. None of the patients achieving pCR has developed any relapse. The median overall survival has not been reached for all 72 patients with a projected 3-year survival (± SE) of 90% (± 4%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 42.1 (± 4.8) months with a projected PFS of 74% ± 7% at 3-years (for 68 patients). Conclusions.PC regimen in LABC produced a high pCR. The contribution of the other added modalities to survival could not be assessed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Tumor promoting phorbol esters, such as 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), stimulate colony formation in vitro by murine granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GM-CFC) without added colony stimulating factors (CSF). To determine whether TPA induces CSF production in vitro, marrow cells were cultured for 1 to 7 days in liquid medium with or without TPA. No CSF was detected in any sample by a double antibody radioimmunoassay (sensitivity = 2 units/0.1 ml), however, colony-stimulating activity was detected in supernatant fluid from all TPA containing cultures by bioassay. This activity appeared to result from a direct effect of TPA rather than from production of CSF, as equivalent activity was found in TPA-containing medium incubated in the absence of marrow cells. Rabbit antiserum to purified L-cell CSF inhibited colony formation stimulated by L-cell CSF and WEHI-3 CSF, but had no effect on colony formation induced by TPA. Cells from long-term marrow cultures responded to TPA with colony formation, despite culture conditions and cell fractionation procedures that reduced the frequency of CSF-proclucing macrophages to 〉 1.0%. TPA inhibited binding of radioiodinated L-cell CSF to marrow cells, especially if the cells were first exposeed to TPA. These results do not support induction of CSF production as the major mechanism of phorbol ester stimulation of myelopoiesis. Phorbol esters may directly stimulate GM-CFC and/or enhance their response to CSF by a mechanism involving CSF binding sites.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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