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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We measured proenkephalin (PEK) mRNA levels in the anterior and medial aspects of the caudate-putamen (CPU) and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the rat by in situ hybridization histochemistry after chronic treatment for 21 days with typical (haloperidol and prolixin) and atypical (molindone, thioridazine, and clozapine) neuroleptics. Chronic administration with these drugs resulted in PEK mRNA levels that were 60–80% higher than controls in the anterior and medial aspects of the CPU but only 25–30% over controls in the NAc. All three atypical neuroleptics studied increased PEK mRNA in the following order: anterior-CPU, thioridazine 〉 clozapine and molindone; medial-CPU, thioridazine and molindone 〉 clozapine; and NAc, thioridazine 〉 〉 molindone and clozapine. Chronic treatment with the specific dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride also caused elevation in PEK mRNA levels in all three brain regions studied whereas the specific serotonin S2 receptor blocker, cinanserin, had no significant effects on PEK mRNA levels. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated levels of the enkephalins in the mesolimbic system may be necessary for antipsychotic activity. They also support the idea that the undesirable motoric signs and symptoms observed after chronic treatment with typical neuroleptics may not be the result of increased levels of enkephalins in the basal ganglia because atypical neuroleptics which are almost totally devoid of these side effects caused similar increases in PEK mRNA in the CPU.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: latex examination gloves ; cornstarch lubrication ; powder-free gloves ; absorbable dusting powders ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: There are a wide variety of latex examination gloves now available for use by health care providers. A prospective randomized trial was completed to quantify the forces required to don a sample of seven cornstarch-lubricated gloves and 13 powder-free latex examination gloves. The data collected was analyzed by a 20 × 2 general factorial ANOVA, as well as two 1-way ANOVAs using a least significance difference post hoc test. Some powder-free gloves can be easily donned with dry or wet hands without tearing with forces comparable to those encountered with powdered gloves. With the advent of these powder-free examination gloves, powdered gloves can now be abandoned, protecting health professionals and patients from the dangers of absorbable dusting powders. Despite the dangers of the absorbable dusting powders and the Food and Drug Administration's requirement for labeling examination glove boxes, some manufacturers of powdered examination gloves do not appropriately label their boxes with a warning to the health professional and patient of the presence of powder. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 43: 331-337, 1998
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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