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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of individual commercially available portable indoor air cleaning units in removing dust particulates, tobacco smoke particulate and vapor phase constituents (nicotine and vinyl pyridine), viable and total fungal spores, pollen, and gaseous contaminants (carbon monoxide[CO], nitrogen dioxide[NO2], and formaldehyde[HCHO]), in a clean air test chamber. The air cleaner chamber results presented here represent initial-use results. In general, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) and electrostatic precipitator systems demonstrated the highest efficiencies with respect to particulate, contaminants, followed closely by electret filter systems. Ionizers and ozone generators were least effective in particulate removal. Systems which included sufficient sorbent material (i.e. activated carbon or potassium permanganate) were marginally effective at gaseous contaminant removal. None of the systems tested were effective at carbon monoxide removal.Sensory testing was conducted to discern potential correlation between human perceptive response and measured air cleaner performance (with respect to tobacco smoke removal). An electret filter (EF) loaded with carbon sorbent received the best ratings with respect to odor strength, nasal irritation, eye irritation, and overall air acceptability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biotechnology progress 10 (1994), S. 611-614 
    ISSN: 1520-6033
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6033
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In a continuous fermentation, significant advantages may be gained by immobilization of microbial cells. Immobilization allows cells to be retained in the fermenter or to be readily recovered and recycled. Therefore, the hydraulic retention time and the biomass retention time are decoupled. A novel cell immobilization has been developed for the immobilization of autotrophic bacteria by coculture with floc-forming heterotrophic bacteria with growth of the latter limited by the availability of organic carbon. The result is an immobilization matrix which grows along with the immobilized autotroph. We have previously demonstrated the utility of this approach by immobilizing the chemoautotroph Thiobacillus denitrificans in macroscopic floc by coculture with floc-forming heterotrophs from an activated sludge treatment facility. Floc with excellent settling characteristics were produced. These floc have now been used to remove H2S from a gas stream bubbled through continuous cultures. The stoichiometry and kinetics of H2S oxidation by immobilized T. denitrificans were comparable to that reported previously for free-cell cultures. Oxygen uptake measurements indicated the growth of both T. denitrificans and the heterotrophs although the medium contained no added organic carbon. Continuous cultures with total biomass recycle were maintained for up to four months indicating the long-term stability of the commensal relationship between the immobilized autotroph and the heterotrophs which composed the immobilization matrix. It was observed that at any given H2S loading the biomass concentration reached a maximum and leveled out. The ultimate biomass concentration was dependent upon the H2S feed rate.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It has been demonstrated that Thiobacillus denitrificans may be readily cultivated anaerobically in batch reactors on H2S (g) under sulfide-limiting conditions. Under these conditions sulfide concentrations in the culture medium were less than 1 μM, resulting in very low concentrations of H2S in the reactor outlet gas. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined, and stable reactor operation was demonstrated at reactor loadings as high as 4-5 mmol H2S oxidized/h g biomass. Maximum loading was estimated at 5.4-7.6 mmol H2S/h g biomass under the conditions employed in this study. Indicators of reactor upset were determined and recovery from upset conditions demonstrated. Barotolerance of T. denitrificans to 12.5 MPa as well as a relative insensitivity to pressurization-depressurization cycles were also demonstrated. T. denitrificans was observed to be very sensitive to CH3SH but relatively tolerant of CS2, COS, and CH3SCH3.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A sulfide-resistant ctrain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium or in Berea sandstone cores. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. These data suggest that strain F would be effective in controlling sulfide production in oil reservoirs and other environments.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 35 (1990), S. 1150-1154 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It has been previously demonstrated that the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, may be cultured aerobically or anaerobically in batch and continuous reactors on H2S(g) under sulfide-limiting conditions. A process has been proposed for the removal of H2S from gases based on oxidation of H2S by T. denitrificans. Described here is a study of H2S oxidation by other Thiobacilli, the purpose of which has been to determine whether other Thiobacilli offer any advantages over T. denitrificans in the aerobic oxidation of H2S. Although four other species of Thiobacillus were found to grow on H2S as an energy source, none offer a clear advantage over T. denitrificans.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Thiobacillus denitrificans ; Sour water ; Hydrogen sulphide ; Petroleum production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The ability of the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobeThiobacillus denitrificans to deodorize and detoxify an oil-field-produced water containing sulphides was evaluated under simulated field conditions. A sulphide-tolerant strain ofT. denitrificans was used to remove inorganic sulphide from a synthetic sour brine containing 4000 mg L−1 total dissolved solids (TDS) and 100 mg L−1 sulphide. The sour brine was treated continuously in a rectangular plugflow reactor which approximated the scaled dimensions of an existing field detention pond. The head space of the reactor was purged with N2 in order to capture H2S off-gases in a zinc acetate trap. Brine was fed to the reactor continuously for 90 days at rates corresponding to residence times of 0.17–6 days. Temperature and pH ranged from 22 to 40.5°C and 7.5 to 8.8, respectively. The start-up biomass concentration was approximately 100 mg L−1 (by dry weight). No. additionalT. denitrificans biomass was added to the reactor after start-up. At residence times of 0.3 days and greater inorganic sulphide was undetectable in the effuent. No H2S was detected in the outlet gas or the zinc acetate trap. Approximately 80% of the sulphide feed was oxidized to sulphate and removed from the reactor in the liquid effluent. The remainder was partially oxidized to elemental sulphur which was retained in the reactor. It is suggested that oxidation of inorganic sulphides byT. denitrificans represents a viable process concept for the treatment of sour water co-produced with oil and gas.
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