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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  123. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20060502-20060505; Berlin; DOC06dgch4963 /20060502/
    Publication Date: 2006-05-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  123. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20060502-20060505; Berlin; DOC06dgch4762 /20060502/
    Publication Date: 2006-05-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 364 (1993), S. 376-376 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Your leading article (Nature 363, 382; 1993) on recent steps taken by the United States to rejoin UNESCO was disappointing. Both the United States and Britain have left the organization in protest against Dr A. Amadew-Mahtar M'Bow's policies. It would seem though, that his replacement by the ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0029-554X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA. , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , England . : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of cardiac surgery 17 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-8191
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: A prospective study to evaluate pathology-related differences in cardiac troponin I (TnI) release and its relation to clinical outcome after paediatric open-heart surgery. Backgound: The degree of perioperative myocardial injury is determined by the ischaemic duration but also by the pathology and preoperative state of the heart (acidosis or cyanosis). Cardiac TnI is a marker of myocardial injury but little is known about the differences in TnI release between different pathologies. Methods: Troponin I was measured in 133 consecutive children undergoing repair of atrial (ASD, n = 41) and ventricular septal defects (VSD, n = 46) and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, n = 46). The length of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) incision in the latter was classified as either minimum(n = 33) or extended(n = 13) according to the normal diameter of the pulmonary valve to body weight. Results: There was no mortality. Postoperative TnI levels were lesion-specific and did not correlate with clinical outcome for ASDs (〈link href="#t2"〉Table 1). For VSDs, peak TnI correlated with the durations of inotropic support (r = 0.69, p = 0.0001), ventilation (r = 0.64, p 〈 0.0001) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (r = 0.60, p 〈 0.0001) with infants (〈1 year old, n = 29) showing higher peak TnI (4.11 ± 0.46 vs 2.49 ± 0.33ng/ml, p = 0.02) and worse clinical outcome than children. For TOF, peak TnI correlated with the duration of inotropic support (r = 0.51, p = 0.0004), ventilation (r = 0.36, p = 0.02) and ICU stay (r = 0.55, p = 0.0001) whereas arterial oxygen saturation showed a negative correlation with these (r =−0.39 to −0.49, p 〈 0.05). Those undergoing an extended RVOT incision had greater peak TnI and worse clincial outcome than those with a minimum RVOT incision (〈link href="#t3"〉Table 2). Conclusions: TnI is a reliable marker of early post-operative recovery after repair of VSDs and TOF. Age (〈1 year) for patients with VSDs and right ventriculotomy length in TOF are important determinants of clinical outcome.〈tabular xml:id="t2"〉1〈title type="main"〉 Patient Characteristics 〈table frame="topbot"〉〈tgroup cols="4" align="left"〉〈colspec colnum="1" colname="col1" align="left"/〉〈colspec colnum="2" colname="col2" align="center"/〉〈colspec colnum="3" colname="col3" align="center"/〉〈colspec colnum="4" colname="col4" align="center"/〉〈thead valign="bottom"〉〈entry morerows="1" valign="top" align="center"〉 ASD (n = 41) 〈entry morerows="1" valign="top" align="center"〉 VSD (n = 46) 〈entry morerows="1" valign="top" align="center"〉 TOF (n = 46) 〈tbody valign="top"〉Age (months) 71.4 ± 6.9 25.3 ± 6.2 18.0 ± 2.9 ACC time (min) 26.4 ± 2.7* 39.2 ± 2.9 49.1 ± 3.6 Inotrope duration (hours) 9.5 ± 1.4* 37.2 ± 6.5 71.6 ± 9.0† Ventilation time (hours) 6.9 ± 1.1
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8191
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Backgound: Perioperative myocardial injury is determined by the ischemic duration, pathology, and preoperative myocardial status. Our aim was to evaluate pathology-related differences in troponin I (TnI) release, a sensitive and specific marker of myocardial injury, and its relation to clinical outcome after pediatric open heart surgery. Methods: Troponin I was measured serially postoperatively in 133 children undergoing repair of atrial (ASD, n = 41) and ventricular septal defects (VSD, n = 46), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, n = 46). The length of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) incision in the latter was classified as either minimum(n = 33) or extended(n = 13). Results: Postoperative TnI levels were lesion specific and did not correlate with clinical outcome for ASDs. Peak TnI correlated with inotropic duration for VSD (r = 0.69, p 〈 0.0001) and TOF (r = 0.51, p = 0.0004). Significant correlations were also observed for the durations of ventilation (r = 0.64 and 0.36, respectively) and ICU stay (r = 0.60 and 0.55). Younger age (〈1 year old) in children with VSDs and an extended incision into the RVOT in TOF were associated with greater TnI release and worse clinical outcome. Conclusions: Postoperative TnI release is pathology related and reflects myocardial damage from both ischemia-reperfusion injury and direct myocardial trauma. (J Card Surg 2003; 18:295-300)
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words l-Alanine ; l-Glutamate ; Transport ; Sarcolemma ; Myocardial protection ; Heart cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  During cardiac insults, heart cells synthesise and accumulate alanine as a part of the anaerobic energy production pathway. The transport of alanine presumably influences this pathway, making it important to characterise the l-alanine transporter in the heart. In this study, we have investigated the transport of l-alanine across the sarcolemma using a novel approach, namely utilisation of two preparations: cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles and cardiac myocytes. Both preparations were isolated from the heart of the same mammalian species. l-Alanine uptake in both preparations was sodium dependent. In the sarcolemmal vesicles, the sodium dependent component was electrogenic and saturated with an estimated Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) and maximal reaction velocity (V max) of 0.48±0.18 mM and 279.97±64.17 pmol/mg per min respectively at room temperature. In the isolated myocytes, l-alanine uptake was linear in sodium-containing media, with an estimated K m and V max of 9.65±0.76 mM and 169.81±13.22 pmol/µl per min respectively at 10°C for the sodium-dependent component. Inhibition of cotransport by a variety of substrates indicated that l-alanine uptake in the heart is mediated by an A- or ASC-like system. These characteristics of l-alanine transport suggest that under ischaemic conditions, l-alanine efflux will be activated, thus allowing for the continuous utilisation of other amino acids for energy production.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4935
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Decreasing extracellular sodium concentration was found to produce a contractile response of rabbit ileal smooth muscle. As the concentration decreases, the amplitude of contraction increases, thus producing a dose-dependent curve. Harmaline, a competitor for sodium, was found to inhibit the sodium gradient-dependent contractions in a dose-dependent manner. The results are interpreted as harmaline inhibiting a Na−Ca exchange mechanism present in ileal smooth muscle.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Amino acids ; Taurine ; Protein amino acids ; Thoroughbred horses ; Heart ; Plasma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Exercise induces significant changes in the free intracellular amino acid pool in skeletal muscle but little is known of whether such changes also occur in cardiac muscle. In this study the effect of regular exercise on the size and the constituents of the free amino acid pool in the hearts and in the plasma of thoroughbred horses was investigated. The total free intracellular amino acid pool in the hearts of control horses was 30.9 ± 1.2μmol/g wet weight (n = 6). Glutamine but not taurine was present at the highest concentration (13.5 ± 0.9 and 7.7 ± 0.69μmol/g wet weight for glutamine and taurine respectively). As for the rest of the amino acids in the pool, only glutamate and alanine were present at levels greater than 1μmol/g wet weight (4.6 ± 0.25 and 1.7 ± 0.14 for glutamate and alanine respectively). The tissue to plasma ratio was highest for taurine at 155, followed by glutamate at 111, aspartate and glutamine at 37, alanine at 5.8 and ratios of less than 3 for the rest of the amino acids. The total free intracellular amino acid pool in the hearts of exercised horses was slightly but not significantly lower than control (28.1 ±1.1μmol/g wet weight, n = 6). Regular exercise increased the intracellular concentration of threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine but was only significant (p 〈 0.05) for threonine. This work has documented the profile of taurine and protein amino acids in the heart and in the plasma of thoroughbred horses and showed that in contrast to skeletal muscle, heart muscle does not show major changes in amino acids during regular exercise.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Amino acids ; Taurine ; Aortic valve surgery ; Cold and warm cardioplegia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of cold and warm intermittent antegrade blood cardioplegia, on the intracellular concentration of taurine in the ischaemic/ reperfused heart of patients undergoing aortic valve surgery, was investigated. Intracellular taurine was measured in ventricular biopsies taken before institution of cardiopulmonary bypass, at the end of 30 min of ischaemic arrest and 20 min after reperfusion. There was no significant change in the intracellular concentration of taurine in ventricular biopsies taken after the period of myocardial ischaemia in the two groups of patients (from 10.1 ± 1.0 to 9.6 ±0.9μmol/g wet weight for cold and from 9.3 ± 1.3 to 10.0 ± 1.3μmol/g wet weight for warm cardioplegia, respectively). Upon reperfusion however, there was a fall in taurine in both groups but was only significant (P → 0.05) in the group receiving cold blood cardioplegia (6.9 ± 0.8μmol/g wet weight after cold blood cardioplegia versus 8.0± 0.8μmol/g wet weight following warm blood cardioplegia). Like taurine, there were no significant changes in the intracellular concentration of ATP after ischaemia in the two groups of patients (from 3.2 ± 0.32 to 2.95 ± 0.43μmol/g wet weight for cold and from 2.75 ± 0.17 to 2.62 ± 0.21μmol/g wet weight for warm cardioplegia, respectively). However upon reperfusion there was a significant fall in ATP in both groups with the extent of the fall being less in the group receiving warm cardioplegia (1.79 ± 0.19μmol/g wet weight for cold and 1.98 ± 0.27μmol/g wet weight for warm cardioplegia, respectively). This work shows that reperfusion following ischaemic arrest with warm cardioplegia reduces the fall in tissue taurine seen after arrest with cold cardioplegia. Accumulation of intracellular sodium provoked by hypothermia and a fall in ATP, may be responsible for the fall in taurine by way of activating the sodium/taurine symport to efflux taurine.
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