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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Gene targeting is accomplished using embryonic stem cells in the mouse but has been successful, only using primary somatic cells followed by embryonic cloning, in other species. Gene targeting in somatic cells versus embryonic stem cells is a challenge; consequently, there are few reported ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Electrical pulse ; Ca2+ elevation ; Bovine parthenote ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The influence of electrical stimulation on the level of intracellular Ca2+ in bovine oocytes, as well as activation and extent of parthenogenetic development, was investigated. Mature oocytes were electrically stimulated at 29 hr of maturation, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration was determined with the Ca2+ indicator fura-2 dextran (fura-2 D). The Ca2+ response of oocytes to a given electrical pulse was variable. Oocytes responded with either no Ca2+ rise from baseline (≍ 12 nM), a short-duration Ca2+ rise (from 12 nM to 300 nM) that returned to baseline within 2 min of the pulse, or a long-duration Ca2+ rise (from 12 nM to 1,000-2,000 nM) that never returned to baseline during the 8 min period over which the oocytes were monitored. In these oocytes, Ca2+ level returned to baseline when oocytes were removed from 0.30 M mannitol and placed in an ionic medium. Increasing field strength or pulse duration tended to increase the proportion of oocytes displaying a Ca2+ rise, and at 1.0 kVcm-1 for 40 μsec, all oocytes displayed a long-duration Ca2+ elevation. Direct transfer of oocytes from culture medium to mannitol also triggered a Ca2+ rise. Multiple stimulations, either electrical or by transferring to mannitol, produced multiple Ca2+ rises. This mannitol-induced Ca2+ rise could be inhibited by first washing the oocytes in medium containing equal parts of 0.30 M mannitol and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of Ca2+ stimulation affected activation and development of oocytes. Insufficient, or, conversely, excessive Ca2+ stimulation impaired development. Optimum development was obtained with (1) three pulses of 0.2 kVcm-1 for 20 μsec, each pulse 22 min apart, after direct transfer of oocytes from culture medium to mannitol (22% blastocysts) or (2) three pulses of 1.0 kVcm-1 for 20 μsec after transfer of oocytes from culture medium to medium containing equal parts mannitol and PBS, then to mannitol (24% blastocysts). This procedure avoided induction of a Ca2+ rise prior to the pulse. The results indicate that the level of Ca2+ stimulation can be regulated by incubation conditions prior to the pulse and, to some extent, by field strength and pulse duration. The level of electrical stimulation influenced oocyte Ca2+ response, activation, and parthenogenetic development. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: MPF ; Ca2+ ; Electrical activation ; Cattle oocyte ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The influence of number of Ca2+ stimulations on the profile of histone H1 kinase activity in bovine oocytes was investigated. A Ca2+ stimulation consisted of transferring oocytes directly from culture medium to mannitol containing 100 μM Ca2+ and pulsing oocytes with a 0.2 kVcm-1, 20 μsec discharge. One, three, or six Ca2+ stimulations were given, each 22 min apart. Oocytes were frozen from 0 to 8 hr after the first stimulation at indicated time points and assayed for histone H1 kinase activity. H1 kinase activity was quantified using a densitometer and expressed as a percent of activity in nonpulsed metaphase II oocytes. Stimulating oocytes in the absence of Ca2+ in the pulsing medium did not inactivate H1 kinase. In the presence of Ca2+, however, H1 kinase was rapidly inactivated after stimulation. A single stimulation decreased H1 kinase activity to 44% ± 11% of its initial level in 1 hr. However, H1 kinase was dramatically reactivated at 2 hr after the stimulation and reached 122% ± 22% of the initial activity at 6 hr. With three stimulations, basal H1 kinase activity was 21% ± 3% and was obtained in 30 min. H1 kinase reactivation started at 4 hr after the first stimulation and level of activity reached 38% ± 15% at 8 hr. Six stimulations also led to rapid H1 kinase inactivation and to a basal activity of 14% ± 0.4%. With six stimulations, however, basal H1 kinase activity was maintained over at least 8 hr, and no reactivation occurred during this period. Basal H1 kinase activity obtained after six stimulations was similar to that of fertilized oocytes. Immunoprecipitation of p34cdc2 with an anti-cdc2 antibody strongly suggested an identity between histone H1 kinase and maturation-promoting factor. The data indicate that histone H1 kinase activity in oocytes could be regulated by the number of Ca2+ stimulations. A single Ca2+ stimulation led to H1 kinase inactivation, followed by reactivation of the kinase. Increasing the number of Ca2+ stimulations delayed the onset and reduced the extent of H1 kinase reactivation in the first parthenogenetic cell cycle. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Human polyclonal antibodies (hPABs) are useful therapeutics, but because they are available only from human donors, their supply and application is limited. To address this need, we prepared a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector containing the entire unrearranged sequences of ...
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