We sought to analyze the evolutionary characteristics and neutralization sensitivity of viruses in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B′ infected plasma donor with broadly neutralizing activity, which may provide information for new broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) isolation and immunogen design. A total of 83 full-length envelope genes were obtained by single-genome amplification (SGA) from the patient’s plasma at three consecutive time points (2005, 2006, and 2008) spanning four years. In addition, 28 Env-pseudotyped viruses were constructed and their neutralization sensitivity to autologous plasma and several representative bNAbs were measured. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these env sequences formed two evolutionary clusters (Cluster I and II). Cluster I viruses vanished in 2006 and then appeared as recombinants two years later. In Cluster II viruses, the V1 length and N-glycosylation sites increased over the four years of the study period. Most viruses were sensitive to concurrent and subsequent autologous plasma, and to bNAbs, including 10E8, PGT121, VRC01, and 12A21, but all viruses were resistant to PGT135. Overall, 90% of Cluster I viruses were resistant to 2G12, while 94% of Cluster II viruses were sensitive to 2G12. We confirmed that HIV-1 continued to evolve even in the presence of bNAbs, and two virus clusters in this donor adopted different escape mechanisms under the same humoral immune pressure.