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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: New neurones are produced in the adult hippocampus throughout life and are necessary for certain types of hippocampal learning. Little, however, is known about the control of hippocampal neurogenesis. We used primary hippocampal cultures from early post-natal rats and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockout mice as well as selective neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists and agonists to demonstrate that neuropeptide Y is proliferative for nestin-positive, sphere-forming hippocampal precursor cells and β-tubulin-positive neuroblasts and that the neuroproliferative effect of neuropeptide Y is mediated via its Y1 receptor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed Y1 receptor staining on both nestin-positive cells and β-tubulin-positive cells in culture and short pulse 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine studies demonstrated that neuropeptide Y has a proliferative effect on both cell types. These studies suggest that the proliferation of hippocampal neuroblasts and precursor cells is increased by neuropeptide Y and, therefore, that hippocampal learning and memory may be modulated by neuropeptide Y-releasing interneurones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recent evidence suggests that steroids such as oestradiol reduce ischaemia-induced neurodegeneration in both in vitro and in vivo models. A cytochrome P450 enzyme termed cyp7b that 7-hydroxylates many steroids is expressed at high levels in brain, although the role of 7-hydroxylated steroids is unknown. We have tested the hypothesis that the steroid-mediated neuroprotection is dependent on the formation of 7-hydroxy metabolites. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were prepared from Wistar rat pups and maintained in vitro for 14 days. Cultures were then exposed to 3 h hypoxia and neuronal damage assessed 24 h later using propidium iodide fluorescence as a marker of cell damage. Neurodegeneration occurred primarily in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. The steroids oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone and epiandrosterone (EPIA) were devoid of neuroprotective efficacy when present at 100 nm pre-, during and post-hypoxia. The 7-hydroxy metabolites of EPIA, 7α-OH-EPIA and 7β-OH-EPIA significantly reduced neurotoxicity at 100 nm and 10 nm. 7β-OH-EPIA was also neuroprotective in two in vivo rat models of cerebral ischaemia: 0.1 mg/kg 7β-OH-EPIA significantly reduced hippocampal cell loss in a model of global forebrain ischaemia, whereas 0.03 mg/kg was neuroprotective in a model of focal ischaemia even when administration was delayed until 6 h after the onset of ischaemia. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 7-hydroxylation of steroids confers neuroprotective efficacy, and that 7β-OH-epiandrosterone represents a novel class of neuroprotective compounds with potential for use in acute neurodegenerative diseases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) occurs rapidly in the brain following ischaemia, although it is unclear whether this represents a neurotoxic or neuroprotective response. We have investigated whether TNF has different actions in the pre- and postischaemic periods in a tissue culture model of cerebral ischaemia. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were prepared from 8–10-day-old rats and maintained in vitro for 14 days. Neuronal damage was induced by either 1 h oxygen–glucose deprivation or 3 h exposure to NMDA or the superoxide generator duroquinone, and assessed after 24 h by propidium iodide fluorescence. TNF pretreatment was neuroprotective against both oxygen–glucose deprivation and duroquinone. This effect was associated with an activation of the transcription factor NFκB and upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase, and was prevented by a free radical scavenger. When addition of TNF was delayed until the postinsult period, an exacerbation of neurotoxicity occurred, which was also prevented by a free radical scavenger. The actions of TNF are determined by whether TNF is present before or after an ischaemia-related insult. Both actions are mediated through the production of free radicals, and the response to TNF is determined by whether a cell is metabolically competent to respond by synthesis of antioxidant defences.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hypothermia has been demonstrated to be an effective neuroprotective strategy in a number of models of ischaemic and excitotoxic neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. Reduced glutamate release and free radical production have been postulated as potential mechanisms underlying this effect but no definitive mechanism has yet been reported. In the current study, we have used oxygen–glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model of cerebral ischaemia. When assessed by propidium iodide fluorescence, reducing the temperature during oxygen–glucose deprivation to 31–33°C was significantly neuroprotective but this effect was lost if the initiation of hypothermia was delayed until the post-insult recovery period. The neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were associated with a significant decrease in both nitric oxide production, as assessed by 3-amino-4-aminomethyl-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein fluorescence, and superoxide formation. Further, hypothermia significantly attenuated NMDA-induced nitric oxide formation in the absence of hypoxia/hypoglycaemia. We conclude that the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia are mediated through a reduction in nitric oxide and superoxide formation and that this effect is likely to be downstream of NMDA receptor activation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects of raised brain lactate levels on neuronal survival following hypoxia or ischemia is still a source of controversy among basic and clinical scientists. We have sought to address this controversy by studying the effects of glucose and lactate on neuronal survival in acute and cultured hippocampal slices. Following a 1-h hypoxic episode, neuronal survival in cultured hippocampal slices was significantly higher if glucose was present in the medium compared with lactate. However, when the energy substrate during the hypoxic period was glucose and then switched to lactate during the normoxic recovery period, the level of cell damage in the CA1 region of organotypic cultures was significantly improved from 64.3 ± 2.1 to 74.6 ± 2.1% compared with cultures receiving glucose during and after hypoxia. Extracellular field potentials recorded from the CA1 region of acute slices were abolished during oxygen deprivation for 20 min, but recovered almost fully to baseline levels with either glucose (82.6 ± 10.0%) or lactate present in the reperfusion medium (108.1 ± 8.3%). These results suggest that lactate alone cannot support neuronal survival during oxygen deprivation, but a combination of glucose followed by lactate provides for better neuroprotection than either substrate alone.
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