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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 14 (1948), S. 154-156 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die mit Einsporen-Kulturen der Bäckerhefe durchgeführten Versuche weisen darauf hin, daß die untersuchten homozygotischen Bäckerhefestämme durch Anpassung imstande waren, Galaktose zu vergären, so daß diese Erscheinung mit der genotypischen Variation nichts zu tun hat.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was cultivated under different intensities of aeration on glucose and on ethanol. Seventeen enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and the TCA cycle or related reactions were then assayed by starch gel electrophoresis. There were both qualitative and quantitative differences in many enzymes, most notably in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and fumarase. Enzyme electrophoresis seems to offer a promising method for rapidly obtaining information about many yeast enzymes from a large number of samples.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. It has been confirmed that under anaerobic conditions at pH 2 pyruvic acid is vigorously decarboxylated by intact baker's yeast, but hardly at all at pH 5.5. Furthermore, the decarboxylation occurs more slowly with semiaerobically cultured than with aerobically cultured baker's yeast. 2. The penetration of pyruvic acid ethyl ester into the cell is not dependent upon the pH of the medium. The ester is decarboxylated by intact yeast at about the same rate, at pH 2 and 5.5. It is not decarboxylated by a purified preparation of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1). 3. Hydroxypyruvic acid is decarboxylated only slowly by intact yeast at pH 2 and pyruvate decarboxylase. The attachment of a phenyl group to the pyruvic acid molecule increase the permeability, but causes an inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase. 4. α-Ketoglutaric acid is decarboxylated neither by intact yeast nor by an enzyme preparation, but with disintegrated yeast a noticeable formation of CO2 is observable. By intact yeast, the γ-ethyl ester of α-ketoglutaric acid reacts towards the acidity of the medium in the same way as does pyruvic acid. With purified pyruvate decarboxylase, the ester is decarboxylated more slowly than α-ketovaleric acid, but more rapidly than α-ketocaproic acid. Nevertheless, it does not penetrate into the intact yeast cell at a weak concentration to the same extent as do the acids last mentioned. α-Ketoglutaric acid diethyl ester behaves in a similar way to pyruvic acid ethyl ester: it penetrates the plasma membrane, and is decarboxylated by yeast but not by a preparation of pyruvate decarboxylase.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Baker's yeast ; Biotin ; Biotinyl enzymes ; Pyruvate carboxylase ; Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ; Ureaamidolyase ; Pyruvate apocarboxylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The holo- and apocarboxylase proteins in baker's yeast grown in a chemostat at different biotin concentrations (from 0.1–200 μg/l) and on different carbon sources were assayed. The growth and the type of metabolism are considered with respect to the activity of the enzymes involved in oxaloacetate regeneration (pyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase activities). In order to assay the level of apocarboxylase protein in the cells the characteristics of the pyruvate holocarboxylase formation in permeabilized cells were studied and thereby an assay method was developed. The pyruvate carboxylase activity of the cells grown in a medium with 4% glucose as the carbon source was almost constant from the lowest biotin concentration up to a biotin concentration of 10 μg/l, after which it rose and obtained a maximum at a biotin concentration of about 50 μg/l. The content of the apocarboxylase protein was maximal at 0.5 μg/l biotin, and then exceeded the level of the active pyruvate carboxylase protein by a factor of about 2.5. With increasing biotin concentration in the medium the content of apocarboxylase protein decreased and was negligible in cells grown at biotin concentrations higher than 100 μg/l. The total content of pyruvate carboxylase protein (i.e. apo- + holoenzyme) was roughly constant over a wide biotin concentration range (from 0.5–15 μg/l), the maximum being only double the minimum. At a biotin concentration 50 μg/l, where the maximum yield was reached, the cells still contained pyruvate apocarboxylase. The rapid increase in yield found around a biotin concentration of 10 μg/l correlates, on the basis of measured enzyme activities, more with the appearance of activity of glyoxylate cycle enzymes than with the increase in the activity of pyruvate carboxylase. When cells were growing on ethanol with biotin as the growth limiting factor, the cells still used biotin for the formation of pyruvate holocarboxylase, and proportionally more of the total content of pyruvate carboxylase protein was in the form of holoenzyme than in the cells growing on glucose under biotin limitation. The existence of urea amidolyase apoprotein in yeast cells grown with urea as the sole nitrogen source under biotin deficiency is reported. The presence of acetyl-CoA apocarboxylase in biotin-deficient cells could not be demonstrated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 33 (1968), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: SUMMARY— Gas chromatography was applied to eight different types of whisky, two of cognac, one of brandy, and four of rum to determine the relative proportions of volatile fatty acids; with the lower molecular acids as free acids, but upwards from caprylic acid as methyl esters. Acetic acid and the total amount of volatile acids were measured quantitatively. Rum contained the largest amount of volatile acids, 600 mg/L, while one of the brands of Scotch whisky contained the least, 90 mg/L. Acetic acid represented 40–95% of the total amount of volatile acids in the whisky; for cognac and brandy, the value was .50–75%, and for rum 75–90%. The relative amounts have been reported for 21 acids, with acetic acid excluded. Capric, caprylic and lauric acid were the main components in whisky, cognac and brandy. Of the beverages analyzed, rum contained the largest quantity of lower fatty acids, particularly propionic and butyric acid; the main component of Jamaican rum was propionic acid. The main components of the group of long-chain fatty acids were myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids. Scotch whisky contained equal amounts of palmitic and palmitoleic acid; palmitoleic acid regularly appeared in smaller amounts in the other beverages
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 191 (1961), S. 498-499 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In order to gain further insight into the development of anthocyanins in maturing fruit, we decided to investigate the blueberry, Vactinium myrtillus L., the characteristic berry of the northern forests of Europe. It is known that the ripe blueberry contains at least seven anthocyanins, derivatives ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 144 (1939), S. 597-597 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ACCORDING to the present conception the keto-acids occupy a central position in the synthesis of amino-acids. Attention has been paid especially to the ‘fundamental keto-acids’, namely, oxaloacetic acid and keto-glutaric acid, since the amino group of aspartic and glutamic acids ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 157 (1946), S. 336-337 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ACCORDING to Martius' recent hypothesis1, dehydrogenation would always constitute the primary phase of pyruvic acid breakdown in the animal organism. Dehydrogenation is followed by decarboxylation, with the formation of the ketene-like radical ... which may act as hydrogen ...
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