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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; microtubule-associated protein (MAP) ; marine egg extracts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Alkaline pH favors the assembly of microtubules (MTs) in marine egg extracts [Suprenant and Marsh, 1987: J. Cell Sci. 184:167-180; Suprenant, 1989: Exp. Cell Res. 184:167-180; 1991: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 19:207-220] and mammalian brain extracts [Tiwari and Suprenant, 1993: Anal. Biochem. 215:96-103], even though the assembly of purified microtubule protein (MTP) from both of these sources is favored at slightly acidic pH. The present investigation examines whether alkaline pH has a direct or indirect effect on MT nucleation and growth in soluble brain extracts. Cell-free extracts were prepared from bovine cerebral cortex, and a nucleated assembly assay was used to demonstrate that MT assembly in brain extracts is favored at slightly acidic pH. The increase in MT mass found at alkaline pH is due to an increase in the solubility of tubulin not an increase in the extent of assembly On average, 47.7 ± 11.3% of the total tubulin is soluble at pH 7.2, while only 30.9 ± 8.9% of the tubulin is soluble at pH 6.8. A model is proposed that indicates how microtubule proteins from both mammalian brain and marine eggs may be associated with pH-dependent factors. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; tubulin ; MAPs ; calcium ; mitosis ; unfertilized sea urchin egg ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytoplasmic tubulin purified from unfertilized sea urchin eggs self-assembles in the absence of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) [Suprenant and Rebhun, 1983; Detrich and Wilson, 1983] with a critical concentration for polymerization of 0.8 mg/ml at 15-18°C, a value well below the 3 mg/ml tubulin present in these eggs [Pfeffer et al, 1976]. Studies of the calcium sensitivity of unfertilized S. purpuratus (sea urchin) egg tubulin were initiated to help understand how this tubulin is maintained unassembled in the unfertilized egg. Egg microtubules, assembled at physiological temperatures (15-18°C) were depolymerized by a 100-fold lower free calcium concentration than egg microtubules assembled at the higher temperatures (25-37°C) generally used to assemble mammalian brain microtubules. The initial rate of egg microtubule assembly was much more sensitive to calcium than was microtubule depolymerization at steady state at 37°C. However, both processes were sensitive to near physiological free calcium of free calcium for depolymerization than microtubules assembled at 18°C from egg tubulin alone. While calcium regulatory MAPs have not yet been found in sea urchin eggs, the fact that brain MAPs interact with egg tubulin and regulate both its critical concentration for polymerization [Suprenant and Rebhun, 1983] and its calcium sensitivty, suggests that such regulatory molecules exist. These results suggest that sea urchin egg tubulin assembly in vivo could be controlled by variations in interacellular calcium levels acting in concert with urchin egg proteins similar in function to brain MAPs.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule ; microtubule-associated protein (MAP) ; RNA ; RNP ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubules were purified from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, Lytechinus variegatus, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Numerous densely stained particles (24 × 26 nm) are associated with microtubules isolated from each of these sea urchins. The most striking aspect of this structure is an extended, slightly curved arm that appears to attach the particles to the microtubule. Morphologically similar particles are associated with microtubules of the isolated first cleavage mitotic apparatus. The particles are attached to the microtubules by ionic interactions and contain large amounts of extractable RNA. Based upon their size and density, RNA and protein composition, and sedimentation in sucrose gradients, the microtubule-associated particles are identified as ribosomes.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; centrosome ; tubulin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Most, if not all, microtubules in vivo grow unidirectionally from a nucleation site such as the centrosome. This organized growth of microtubules can generate and maintain the radially symmetrical array of interphase microtubules as well as the bipolar mitotic apparatus. To investigate the regulation of polarized microtubule growth, we have prepared a cell-free extract from surf clam oocytes that exhibits unidirectional microtubule assembly. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the net assembly of microtubules onto the fast (plus)- and slow (minus)- growing ends of isolated ciliary axonemes. All detectable microtubule growth in these cytoplasmic extracts occurred at the plus (+) ends and the extent of (+) end growth was regulated by subtle changes in pH. Microtubule assembly in these crude extracts was highly favored at pH 7.3, the pH of the post-fertilization cytoplasm. In contrast, when tubulin was purified from these oocyte extracts, integral components were lost, and microtubule growth became predominantly bidirectional and was favored at acidic pH. These results indicate that cytoplasmic factors may inhibit bidirectional growth in vivo and that temporal or local changes in cytoplasmic pH may influence microtubule assembly during the cell cycle.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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