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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Anabaena ; Artificial association ; Cyanobacteria ; Nostoc ; Polysaccharide ; Root association Wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The characteristics of the mucilaginous sheaths of the cyanobacteria Nostoc 2S9B and Anabaena C5 and their role in the formation of associations with the roots of wheat plants grown in liquid culture have been assessed. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filaments of Nostoc 2S9B that formed a tight association with the root surface were contained in a firm mucilaginous shell. In contrast, filaments of Anabaena C5 formed a loose association and were easily detached from the mucilage that had a sheet-like appearance and tended to disintegrate as the culture aged. Similarly, there was a tight attachment of the isolated polysaccharide from Nostoc 2S9B to the root surface and a loose attachment of the Anabaena C5 polysaccharide. When the crude polysaccharide from Nostoc 2S9B was freed from proteins by phenol or pronase treatment, its ability to adhere to the root surface was lost or considerably reduced, suggesting that a protein component contributes to the tight attachment of Nostoc 2S9B. The crude polysaccharide preparation from Nostoc 2S9B contained 2.8% (w/w) protein while that from Anabaena C5 was only 0.6% (w/w) protein. The purified exopolysaccharide from Nostoc 2S9B contained three neutral sugars and glucuronic acid, whereas fucose and a uronic acid were the main components of that from Anabaena C5. Washing the roots or treating them with different sugars did not alter the ability of Nostoc 2S9B to colonize the root surface, indicating that cyanobacterial attachment may not be specific.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary In this study, some factors influencing the secretion of alginic acid and the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by a highly mucoid strain of Azotobacter vinelandii were investigated in batch culture. The highest alginate yields (6.0–7.5 mgml-1 culture supernate) were routinely obtained for growth in a phosphate and nitrogen-rich medium (PNR) with glucose as carbon source, aerated by shaking at 280 rpm. In this case, the intracellular accumulation of PHB reached a maximum of 30% cell dry weight. At 120 rpm alginate yield was only 1.4 mgml-1 and PHB constituted 40%. This reflected oxygen-limitation under these conditions. The presence of inorganic phosphate in PNR was seen to be important as growth in low-salts, nitrogen-free medium resulted in poor alginate production, which was not improved by addition of nitrogen sources, such as nitrate or glutamate. Under otherwise optimised conditions, different peptones gave widely different alginate yields. If glucose was replaced by sucrose, growth and alginate production were reduced.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A polysaccharide-producing Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a sample of hay. It grew best on nitrate-containing media with sucrose as carbon source; the colony form was highly unusual. No polysaccharide was formed on glucose. A spontaneous mutant producing the same polysaccharide on both sucrose- and glucose-containing media was isolated. The polysaccharide has been characterized as an acid heteropolymer containing D-galacturonic acid, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose in the approximate molar ratio 1:1:3:1, together with about 2 mol of acetate. The polysaccharide in aqueous solution was highly viscous with pseudoplastic characteristics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 9 (1970), S. 2180-2185 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 232 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Biofilms present complex assemblies of micro-organisms attached to surfaces. They are dynamic structures in which various metabolic activities and interactions between the component cells occur. When phage come in contact with biofilms, further interactions occur dependent on the susceptibility of the biofilm bacteria to phage and to the availability of receptor sites. If the phage also possess polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, or if considerable cell lysis is effected by the phage, the integrity of the biofilm may rapidly be destroyed. Alternatively, coexistence between phage and host bacteria within the biofilm may develop. Although phage have been proposed as a means of destroying or controlling biofilms, the technology for this has not yet been successfully developed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 16 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: Polysaccharide lyases are the products of various microorganisms, bacteriophage and some eukaryotes. All such enzymes cleave a hexose-1,4-α- or β-uronic acid sequence by β-elimination. They are in some examples, the only known type of enzymes degrading their polyanionic substrates. Although only a small number of these enzymes have been exhaustively studied, the pectin lyases of bacterial origin have proved to be of interesting crystal structure containing a parallel β-helix domain. Alginate and heparin lyases may yield products with biotechnological potential.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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