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  • 1
    Abstract: Population-based cancer survival rates offer an important benchmark for measuring a health care system s overall effectiveness in the fight against cancer. While this type of information on high-resource countries is readily available, Cancer Survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America presents in-depth cancer survival data from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 low- and middle-resource countries. The striking inequalities in cancer survival between countries and within countries described in this volume are largely related to the differences in general awareness, availability of early detection practices, trained human resources, diagnosis and treatment and the development and accessibility to cancer services, as well as, to a lesser extent, to issues of data quality and reliability. The differences in cancer survival reported in populations observed between and within countries studied in this volume provide valuable insights for future planning and investment by governments in primary prevention activities, early detection initiatives and tertiary care to achieve meaningful cancer control. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Abstract: Population-based cancer survival rates offer an important benchmark for measuring a health care system s overall effectiveness in the fight against cancer. While this type of information on high-resource countries is readily available, Cancer Survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America presents in-depth cancer survival data from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 low- and middle-resource countries. The striking inequalities in cancer survival between countries and within countries described in this volume are largely related to the differences in general awareness, availability of early detection practices, trained human resources, diagnosis and treatment and the development and accessibility to cancer services, as well as, to a lesser extent, to issues of data quality and reliability. The differences in cancer survival reported in populations observed between and within countries studied in this volume provide valuable insights for future planning and investment by governments in primary prevention activities, early detection initiatives and tertiary care to achieve meaningful cancer control. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 3
    Keywords: PATIENT SURVIVAL ; REGISTRIES ; ALTERNATIVE APPROACH
    Abstract: Abstract: Background Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Methods Survival analysis was done for 341658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. Findings For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. Interpretation The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20005175
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0300-9629
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: sulphinpyrazone ; myocardial infarction ; renal function ; uric acid excretion ; prognostic implications
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of sulphinpyrazone 800 mg daily on renal excretory function were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial of incremental and full doses of the drug in 28 patients with plasma urea concentration 〈10 mmol/l in the period 2–28 days following uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Sulphinpyrazone in both dosage regimens increased uric acid excretion and lowered plasma urate concentration. There was no evidence that the drug reduced glomerular filtration rate or damaged the renal tubules. These results suggest that sulphinpyrazone in the doses used in this study is not contraindicated in patients early after acute myocardial infarction even though they may have a moderate rise in the blood urea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone loss ; Bone mass ; Calcium supplement ; Elderly ; Load-bearing exercise ; Randomized controlled trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A randomized controlled trial was carried out to determine whether calcium supplementation and load-bearing exercise can increase or maintain bone mass in the elderly. Fifty Chinese women, aged 62–92 years, living in a hostel for the elderly in Hong Kong were randomized to enter one of four treatment groups: (I) calcium supplementation of 800 mg (as calcium lactate gluconate) daily; (II) load-bearing exercise four times a week plus a daily placebo tablet; (III) calcium supplementation daily and load-bearing exercise four times a week; (IV) a placebo tablet daily. The interventions went on for 10 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at three sites in the hip (femoral neck, Ward's triangle and intertrochanteric area) and the L2–4 level of the spine. The percentage change in BMD in 10 months was used as the main outcome measurement. The parathyroid hormone level and indices of bone metabolism were also measured before and after 10 months of intervention. The BMD at Ward's triangle and the intertrochanteric area increased significantly in subjects on calcium supplement (p〈0.05), but there was no significant change at the spine and femoral neck. Exercise had no effect on bone loss at any site. However, the results of two-way analysis of variance showed a significant joint effect of calcium supplements and exercise at the femoral neck (p〈0.05), but not at the other sites. The parathyroid hormone levels fell significantly in subjects on calcium supplements (p〈0.01). Calcium supplement in the form of calcium lactate gluconate was adequately absorbed in elderly Chinese women with a calcium intake of less than 300 mg per day. It was effective in reducing bone loss at the hip, and there may be interaction effects with exercise in maintaining bone density.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Calcium ; Bone mineral ; Dietary sodium ; Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of high sodium intake on bone mineral content of rats fed a normal (0.6% Ca) or a low (0.02% Ca) calcium diet was studied. Rats on a normal calcium diet given 1.8% sodium chloride to drink showed persistent and significant hypercalciuria and subnormal bone mineral content. Total calcium content of femur was significantly lower after 4 months (p〈0.02) and 12 months (p〈0.001). In rats maintained on a low calcium diet (0.02% Ca), a high sodium diet for 8 weeks caused a significant loss of calcium in bone similar to that seen in animals fed a normal calcium diet for 4 months. We conclude that high sodium intake reduces bone mineral content, especially if the diet is low in calcium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone mineral density ; Calcium density ; Calcium:protein ratio ; Dietary calcium ; Young Chinese women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A study on the determinants of bone mass in young women is being carried out among 287 young Chinese women aged 21–40 years. The baseline cross-sectional data show that the mean dietary calcium intake, estimated from the quantitative food frequency method, was 448 mg/day (standard deviation = 219). About 50% of the calcium source was from vegetables and 22% from dairy products. Among women aged 21–30 years, those with a dietary calcium intake of at least 600 mg/day had a 4%–7% higher mean bone mineral density at the spine and femur when compared with those with a mean intake below 300 mg/day. In women aged 31–40 years, subjects belonging to the highest quartile of calcium density (⩾35 mg/420 kJ) had a 3%–8% higher mean bone mineral density at the spine and femur when compared with those in the lowest quartile (〈20.8 mg/420 kJ). Favorable calcium intake is beneficial in this population of young women with habitual low dietary calcium intake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycosylated haemoglobin ; fructosamine ; diabetes mellitus ; elderly ; Chinese
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study provides information on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a group of elderly Chinese subjects aged 60 and above living in the community in Hong Kong, and investigates the sensitivity of the urine sugar, random blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and fructosamine measurements compared to a glucose tolerance test in screening for diabetes mellitus in this population. Four hundred twenty-seven subjects aged 60 and above were studied. The National Diabetes Data Group Criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetes. Those with a random blood glucose exceeding 12.5 mmol/l were considered diabetic, and all of these patients had glycosuria together with elevated total glycosylated haemoglobin and fractosamine concentrations. A diagnostic 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed on patients with one or more of the following abnormalities: glycosuria, random plasma blood glucose 7.8 mmol/l to 12.5 mmol/l, glycosylated haemoglobin 8.5%, and fructosamine 2.20 mmol/l. By these criteria, the prevalence of diabetes in this community was found to be 9.8%. An elevated random glucose greater than 11.1 mmol/l proved to be the only specific method of screening and glycosuria was found to be at least as good as fractosamine and HbA1. However, HbA1 is more sensitive than random glucose, glycosuria or fructosamine in detecting impaired glucose tolerance. On the basis of this study, a higher reference range for glycosylated haemoglobin for the elderly alone is also suggested (5.74–9.34%).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Salivary elimination of paracetamol was studied in nine type I and ten type II diabetics. Ten healthy volunteers served as a control group.2. A significant increase in the elimination half-life (t1/2) and apparent volume of distribution was observed in type I diabetics compared with controls. Clearance rate (CL) was not significantly altered.3. In type II diabetics paracetamol elimination t1/2 was significantly increased with a corresponding decrease in CL. Apparent volume of distribution of the drug was not significantly different.4. Paracetamol elimination t1/2 had significant correlation with fasting blood sugar values.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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