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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain reveals high rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defences, increased oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, and elevated transition metal ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction in AD is perhaps relevant to these observations, as such may contribute to neurodegenerative cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of molecules that initiate programmed cell death pathways. In this study, we analyzed the effects of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) on human teratocarcinoma (NT2) cells expressing endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mtDNA from AD subjects (AD cybrids), and mtDNA from age-matched control subjects (control cybrids). In addition to finding reduced cytochrome oxidase activity, elevated ROS, and reduced ATP levels in the AD cybrids, when these cell lines were exposed to Aβ 1–40 we observed excessive mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome c, and elevated caspase-3 activity. When exposed to Aβ, events associated with programmed cell death are activated in AD NT2 cybrids to a greater extent than they are in control cybrids or the native NT2 cell line, suggesting a role for mtDNA-derived mitochondrial dysfunction in AD degeneration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Oxidative stress induced by acute complex I inhibition with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion activated biphasically the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the early transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Early JNK activation was dependent on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) activity, whereas late-phase JNK activation and the cleavage of signaling proteins Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) kinase (MEKK)-1 appeared to be ANT-independent. Early NF-κB activation depended on MEK, later activation required an intact electron transport chain (ETC), and Parkinson's disease (PD) cybrid (mitochondrial transgenic cytoplasmic hybrid) cells had increased basal NF-κB activation. Mitochondria appear capable of signaling ETC impairment through MAPK modules and inducing protective NF-κB responses, which are increased by PD mitochondrial genes amplified in cybrid cells. Irreversible commitment to apoptosis in this cell model may derive from loss of Raf-1 and cleavage/activation of MEKK-1, processes reported in other models to be caspase-mediated. Therapeutic strategies that reduce mitochondrial activation of proapoptotic MAPK modules, i.e., JNK, and enhance survival pathways, i.e., NF-κB, may offer neuroprotection in this debilitating disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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