Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The problem of representing the drag due to subgridscale orography is examined. Results from model simulations are used to illustrate clear deficiencies in the global angular momentum budgets and possible ways of correcting for these deficiencies are considered. It is argued that a formulation for the stress due to subgridscale gravity waves is required, as was first recognized by Boer et al. (1984a, b), and the impact of a scheme based on Palmer et al. (1986) is presented. The scheme is improved by using directionally-dependent subgridscale orographic variances. Results from 90-day integrations using the ECMWF and UKMO models with similar resolutions are very much in accord both with and without a wave drag parametrization scheme; showing much improved wintertime circulations. The relationship between the wave drag and the model orography is examined with the use of idealized stress profiles whereby the wave drag is limited to either near the surface or in the stratosphere. A combination of parametrized wave drag with an envelope orography performs best at this stage of development. Results are presented from a substantial series of ten-day forecast experiments with the ECMWF operational model using mean and (1 σ) envelope orographies, these show significant improvements in forecast skill.
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