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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; Germany ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; HEALTH ; PROMOTER ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; EUROPE ; inflammation ; molecular epidemiology ; CYTOKINE ; CELL CARCINOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; INTERLEUKIN-1 ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 ; case control studies ; methods ; INTERLEUKIN-8 ; oral cancer ; CANCERS ; ESOPHAGEAL CANCER ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; INTERLEUKIN-8 PROMOTER ; larynx cancer ; pharynx cancer ; upper aerodigestive tract cancers
    Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of polymorphisms of genes involved in inflammation in the risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). Methods We have evaluated the role of polymorphisms in key genes related to inflammation, namely IL1B (rs1143627), COX2/PTGS2 (rs5275), and IL8 (rs4073) in a large case-control study comprising 811 UADT cancer cases and 1,083 controls. Results An association was observed for squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx for a polymorphism in the promoter of the IL1B gene, with an OR of 2.39 (95% CI = 1.19-4.81) for the homozygotes for the minor allele A promoter polymorphism of IL8 was associated with decreased risk of laryngeal cancer, with an OR of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.50-0.98) for carriers of the minor allele. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of these polymorphisms with respect to UADT carcinogenesis. Our results suggest that inflammation-related polymorphisms play a role, albeit minor, in the risk of developing cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17356794
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; human ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MARKER ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; COMPONENT ; MARKERS ; DAMAGE ; HUMAN GENOME ; REGION ; REGIONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CYCLE CONTROL ; MULTICENTER ; DNA repair ; O-6-ALKYLGUANINE-DNA ALKYLTRANSFERASE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; VARIANT ; CHECKPOINT ; biomarker ; INTERVAL ; ENZYME ; analysis ; DNA damage ; HAPLOTYPE ; USA ; odds ratio ; cancer research ; cell cycle checkpoints ; modeling ; cell cycle control ; block ; nonsmokers ; INTEGRITY
    Abstract: The DNA repair systems maintain the integrity of the human genome and cell cycle checkpoints are a critical component of the cellular response to DNA damage. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DNA repair and cell cycle control pathways will influence the predisposition to lung cancer, and studied 27 variants in 17 DNA repair enzymes and 10 variants in eight cell cycle control genes in 1,604 lung cancer patients and 2,053 controls. To improve the estimation of risks for specific variants, we applied a Bayesian approach in which we allowed the prior knowledge regarding the evolutionary biology and physicochemical properties of the variant to be incorporated into the hierarchical model. Based on the estimation from the hierarchical modeling, MGMT 143V or 178R, and CHEK2 157I had an odds ratio of lung cancer equal to 1.45 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-2.00], 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01-1.40), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.14-2.17). The association of CHEK2 1571 seems to be overestimated in the conventional analysis. Nevertheless, this association seems to be robust in the hierarchical modeling. None of the pathways seem to have a prominent effect. In general, our study supports the notion that sequence variation may explain at least some of the variation of inherited susceptibility. In particular, further investigation of OGG1, MGMT, and CHEK2 focusing on the genetic regions where the present markers are located or the haplotype blocks tightly linked with these markers might be warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18086781
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; LUNG ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; MARKER ; TISSUES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ACID ; COUNTRIES ; REGION ; FRANCE ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; RECEPTORS ; SMOKERS ; DEPENDENCE ; SNPs ; NEURONS ; CANDIDATE ; ENGLAND ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; NUCLEOTIDE ; FAGERSTROM TOLERANCE QUESTIONNAIRE ; HAPLOTYPE MAP
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with over one million cases annually(1). To identify genetic factors that modify disease risk, we conducted a genome- wide association study by analysing 317,139 single- nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,989 lung cancer cases and 2,625 controls from six central European countries. We identified a locus in chromosome region 15q25 that was strongly associated with lung cancer ( P= 9 x 10(-10)). This locus was replicated in five separate lung cancer studies comprising an additional 2,513 lung cancer cases and 4,752 controls ( P = 5 x 10(-20) overall), and it was found to account for 14%( attributable risk) of lung cancer cases. Statistically similar risks were observed irrespective of smoking status or propensity to smoke tobacco. The association region contains several genes, including three that encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits ( CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4). Such subunits are expressed in neurons and other tissues, in particular alveolar epithelial cells, pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and lung cancer cell lines(2,3), and they bind to N'- nitrosonornicotine and potential lung carcinogens(4). A non- synonymous variant of CHRNA5 that induces an amino acid substitution ( D398N) at a highly conserved site in the second intracellular loop of the protein is among the markers with the strongest disease associations. Our results provide compelling evidence of a locus at 15q25 predisposing to lung cancer, and reinforce interest in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as potential disease candidates and chemopreventative targets(5)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18385738
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; validation ; DNA ; BIOMARKERS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; REPAIR ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; genotyping ; DNA repair ; TP53 ; ONCOLOGY ; VARIANT ; METAANALYSIS ; XRCC1 ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; DNA repair genes ; pooled analysis ; USA ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; OGG1 ; NOV ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; XRCC3 ; discussion ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; CONSORTIUM ; genetic variants ; GENOME-WIDE ; APEX1
    Abstract: Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. Methods: Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. Results: Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% Cl, 0.71-1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% Cl, 0.89-1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% Cl, 1.00-1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. Discussion: In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3081-9)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990748
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 6
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; NECK-CANCER ; pooled analysis ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; SENSITIVITY PROTEIN MUS308 ; TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p 〈= 5 x 10(-7)). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1 x 10(-8)) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2 x 10(-8)) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 x 10(-8); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 x 10(-9); and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21437268
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  • 7
    Keywords: CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; ORAL-CANCER ; UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT ; occupational exposures ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; OROPHARYNGEAL-CANCER
    Abstract: Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. What's new? Head and neck cancer is among the most common and increasing cancers in the world. Besides smoking, alcohol drinking, and human papilloma virus infections, low socioeconomic status has been implicated as one of the most important risk factors for this cancer type. This large multinational study authoritatively confirmed that lower education status and lower income are associated with increased risk for head and neck cancer development. Smoking and alcohol consumption could not entirely explain the risk associated with low socioeconomic factors, and therefore, as the authors argue, need to be more explicitly recognized in the etiology associated with head and neck cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24996155
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  • 8
    Keywords: PROTEINS ; SKIN ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HAPLOTYPE MAP ; DISEASE ASSOCIATION ; EXTENDED HUMAN MHC
    Abstract: High-risk mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas cutaneous types (e.g. HPV8 and 77) are suspected to be involved in non-melanoma skin cancer. The antibody response to HPVs is a key determinant of protective immunity, but not all infected individuals seroconvert. Genetic variability of the host may have large impact on seroconversion. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified a susceptibility locus (rs41270488) for HPV8 seropositivity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. To further study this locus, we imputed alleles at classical leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using HLA*IMP:02 with a reference panel from the HapMap Project and the 1958 Birth Cohort, and conducted an integrated analysis among 4811 central European subjects to assess the contribution of classical HLA alleles and gene copy number variation (CNV) at the hypervariable DRB locus within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity at both the individual HPV type level and the phylogenetic species level. Our study provides evidence that the association noted between rs41270488 and HPV8 seropositivity is driven by two independent variants, namely DQB1*0301 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.68, P = 1.0 x 10(-14)] and DRB1*1101 (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.57-2.28, P = 1.5 x 10(-11)) within the HLA class II region. Additionally, we identified two correlated alleles DRB1*0701 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.41-1.98, P = 2.6 x 10(-9)) and DQA1*0201 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.38-1.93, P = 1.7 x 10(-8)), to be associated with HPV77 seropositivity. Comparable results were observed through imputation using SNP2HLA with another reference panel from the Type 1 diabetes Genetics Consortium. This study provides support for an important role of HLA class II alleles in antibody response to HPV infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25616963
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  • 9
    Keywords: RISK-FACTORS ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT ; pooled analysis ; PHARYNGEAL CANCER ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; LARYNGEAL-CANCER ; BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS
    Abstract: Scope: Only a few studies analyzed the role of allium vegetables with reference to head and neck cancers (HNC), with mixed results. We investigated the potential favorable role of garlic and onion within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. Methods and results: We analyzed pooled individual-level data from eight case-control studies, including 4590 cases and 7082 controls. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between garlic and onion intakes and HNC risk. Compared with no or low garlic use, the ORs of HNC were 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-1.27) for intermediate and 0.74 (95% CI 0.55-0.99) for high garlic use (p for trend = 0.02). The ORs of HNC for increasing categories of onion intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.68-1.21) for 〉 1 to 〈= 3 portions per week, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.60-1.13) for 〉 3 portions per week (p for trend = 0.02), as compared to 〈1 portion per week. We found an inverse association between high onion intake and laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88), but no significant association for other subsites. Conclusion: The results of this pooled-analysis support a possible moderate inverse association between garlic and onion intake and HNC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26018663
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; PHASE-I ; DIAGNOSIS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; microarray ; METABOLISM ; PATIENT ; CARCINOGENESIS ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ACID ; ACIDS ; AGE ; SNP ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; Jun ; PHENOTYPE ; CARRIERS ; SERIES ; EUROPE ; molecular epidemiology ; PHASE-II ; VASCULAR-DISEASE ; YOUNG ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; EXTENSION ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; development ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; MTHFR ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ENZYME ; PHASE ; GENOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPE ; single-nucleotide ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; technique ; oligonucleotide microarray ; PRIMER EXTENSION ; INCREASED RISK ; Phase I ; COMMON MUTATION
    Abstract: The role of genes coding for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) and the risk of lung cancer is unclear. Under the assumption that these genes may be more important among people having a diagnosis of lung cancer at younger ages, we have investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within phase I and phase II XME genes, and also genes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids in a series of young onset patients and matched controls. We genotyped 299 lung cancer cases diagnosed before the age of 50 and 317 controls, from six countries of Central and Eastern Europe, by use of an oligonucleotide microarray and arrayed primer extension technique for 45 SNPs in 15 phase I XME genes, 46 SNPs in 17 phase H genes and 9 SNPs in 4 genes related to metabolism of nucleic acids. Heterozygote carriers of SNPs in CYP1A2 1545T〉C, -164C〉A and -740T〉G; CYP2A6 -47A〉C; MDR1 3435T〉C; NAT1 1088T〉A and 1095A〉C; GSTA2 S112T, GSTM3 V224I and MTHFR A222V had altered risk of developing lung cancer. Phenotypes reconstructed after haplotype analyses showed that the carriers of the combined NAT] fast+ NAT2 fast phenotypes were at lower risk when compared with those with the combined NAT1 slow + NAT2 slow acetylator phenotypes. Finally, extensive EPHX1 metabolizers showed an increased risk as compared with the poor metabolizers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17259654
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