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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-06-19
    Description: There is an urgent need for new drugs to treat malaria, with broad therapeutic potential and novel modes of action, to widen the scope of treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the discovery of DDD107498, a compound with a potent and novel spectrum of antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of the Plasmodium parasite, with good pharmacokinetic properties and an acceptable safety profile. DDD107498 demonstrates potential to address a variety of clinical needs, including single-dose treatment, transmission blocking and chemoprotection. DDD107498 was developed from a screening programme against blood-stage malaria parasites; its molecular target has been identified as translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is responsible for the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNA, and is essential for protein synthesis. This discovery of eEF2 as a viable antimalarial drug target opens up new possibilities for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700930/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700930/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baragana, Beatriz -- Hallyburton, Irene -- Lee, Marcus C S -- Norcross, Neil R -- Grimaldi, Raffaella -- Otto, Thomas D -- Proto, William R -- Blagborough, Andrew M -- Meister, Stephan -- Wirjanata, Grennady -- Ruecker, Andrea -- Upton, Leanna M -- Abraham, Tara S -- Almeida, Mariana J -- Pradhan, Anupam -- Porzelle, Achim -- Martinez, Maria Santos -- Bolscher, Judith M -- Woodland, Andrew -- Norval, Suzanne -- Zuccotto, Fabio -- Thomas, John -- Simeons, Frederick -- Stojanovski, Laste -- Osuna-Cabello, Maria -- Brock, Paddy M -- Churcher, Tom S -- Sala, Katarzyna A -- Zakutansky, Sara E -- Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen -- Sanz, Laura Maria -- Riley, Jennifer -- Basak, Rajshekhar -- Campbell, Michael -- Avery, Vicky M -- Sauerwein, Robert W -- Dechering, Koen J -- Noviyanti, Rintis -- Campo, Brice -- Frearson, Julie A -- Angulo-Barturen, Inigo -- Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago -- Gamo, Francisco Javier -- Wyatt, Paul G -- Leroy, Didier -- Siegl, Peter -- Delves, Michael J -- Kyle, Dennis E -- Wittlin, Sergio -- Marfurt, Jutta -- Price, Ric N -- Sinden, Robert E -- Winzeler, Elizabeth A -- Charman, Susan A -- Bebrevska, Lidiya -- Gray, David W -- Campbell, Simon -- Fairlamb, Alan H -- Willis, Paul A -- Rayner, Julian C -- Fidock, David A -- Read, Kevin D -- Gilbert, Ian H -- 079838/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 091625/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 100476/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI103058/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 18;522(7556):315-20. doi: 10.1038/nature14451.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Drug Discovery Unit, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive 0760, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Global Health and Tropical Medicine Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Darwin, Northern Territory 0811, Australia. ; Department of Global Health, College of Public Health University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 304, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. ; GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus-Diseases of the Developing World, Severo Ochoa 2, Tres Cantos 28760, Madrid, Spain. ; TropIQ Health Sciences, Geert Grooteplein 28, Huispost 268, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. ; Eskitis Institute, Brisbane Innovation Park, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; Malaria Pathogenesis Laboratory, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jalan Diponegoro 69, 10430 Jakarta, Indonesia. ; Medicines for Malaria Venture, PO Box 1826, 20 route de Pre-Bois, 1215 Geneva 15, Switzerland. ; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Global Health and Tropical Medicine Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Darwin, Northern Territory 0811, Australia [2] Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA [2] Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085270" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antimalarials/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Drug Discovery ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects ; Life Cycle Stages/drug effects ; Liver/drug effects/parasitology ; Malaria/drug therapy/*parasitology ; Male ; Models, Molecular ; Peptide Elongation Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Plasmodium/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Plasmodium berghei/drug effects/physiology ; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects/metabolism ; Plasmodium vivax/drug effects/metabolism ; Protein Biosynthesis/*drug effects ; Quinolines/administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PbAP2-G, a conserved member of the apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family of DNA-binding proteins, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in Plasmodium berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PbAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PbAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, here termed PbAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis, indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PbAP2-G that could be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105895/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105895/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sinha, Abhinav -- Hughes, Katie R -- Modrzynska, Katarzyna K -- Otto, Thomas D -- Pfander, Claudia -- Dickens, Nicholas J -- Religa, Agnieszka A -- Bushell, Ellen -- Graham, Anne L -- Cameron, Rachael -- Kafsack, Bjorn F C -- Williams, April E -- Llinas, Manuel -- Berriman, Matthew -- Billker, Oliver -- Waters, Andrew P -- 083811/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083811/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085349/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 104111/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0501670/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P50 GM071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076276/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007388/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):253-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12970. Epub 2014 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK [2]. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK [2]. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA [2] Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA [2] Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA [3] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24572359" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Culicidae/parasitology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Germ Cells/cytology/*growth & development/metabolism ; Malaria/*parasitology ; Male ; Mutation/genetics ; Plasmodium berghei/cytology/*genetics/*physiology ; Protein Transport ; Protozoan Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Reproduction, Asexual ; Sexual Development/*genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The pathogenesis of infectious diseases depends on the interaction of host and pathogen. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, host and parasite processes can be assessed by dual RNA sequencing of blood from infected patients. We performed dual transcriptome analyses on samples from 46 malaria-infected Gambian children to reveal mechanisms driving the systemic pathophysiology of severe malaria. Integrating these transcriptomic data with estimates of parasite load and detailed clinical information allowed consideration of potentially confounding effects due to differing leukocyte proportions in blood, parasite developmental stage, and whole-body pathogen load. We report hundreds of human and parasite genes differentially expressed between severe and uncomplicated malaria, with distinct profiles associated with coma, hyperlactatemia, and thrombocytopenia. High expression of neutrophil granule–related genes was consistently associated with all severe malaria phenotypes. We observed severity-associated variation in the expression of parasite genes, which determine cytoadhesion to vascular endothelium, rigidity of infected erythrocytes, and parasite growth rate. Up to 99% of human differential gene expression in severe malaria was driven by differences in parasite load, whereas parasite gene expression showed little association with parasite load. Coexpression analyses revealed interactions between human and P. falciparum , with prominent co-regulation of translation genes in severe malaria between host and parasite. Multivariate analyses suggested that increased expression of granulopoiesis and interferon-–related genes, together with inadequate suppression of type 1 interferon signaling, best explained severity of infection. These findings provide a framework for understanding the contributions of host and parasite to the pathogenesis of severe malaria and identifying new treatments.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Severe malaria is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Despite decades of research, the distinct biology of these parasites has made it challenging to establish high-throughput genetic approaches to identify and prioritize therapeutic targets. Using transposon mutagenesis of P. falciparum in an approach that exploited its AT-rich genome, we generated more than 38,000 mutants, saturating the genome and defining mutability and fitness costs for over 87% of genes. Of 5399 genes, our study defined 2680 genes as essential for optimal growth of asexual blood stages in vitro. These essential genes are associated with drug resistance, represent leading vaccine candidates, and include approximately 1000 Plasmodium -conserved genes of unknown function. We validated this approach by testing proteasome pathways for individual mutants associated with artemisinin sensitivity.
    Keywords: Microbiology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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