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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koike, Nobuya -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung-Chung -- Kumar, Vivek -- Lee, Choogon -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053616/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):349-54. doi: 10.1126/science.1226339. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Circadian Clocks/*genetics ; Cryptochromes/*genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Period Circadian Proteins/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; *Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Angioma, gastrointestinal tract—Liver, MR—Liver neoplasms, MR—Magnetic resonance (MR), comparative studies—Magnetic resonance (MR), technique.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Background: We compared T2-weighted and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences with T2-weighted non-breath-hold TSE sequence to evaluate hepatic hemangiomas on magnetic resonance (MR) with a phased-array multicoil. Methods: Twenty-two patients with 27 hemangiomas were studied at 1.0-T scanner by using T2-weighted and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE sequences (18 s each) and non-breath-hold T2-weighted TSE sequences with use of a phased-array multicoil. Images were quantitatively analyzed for tumor-to-liver signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SD/Ns) and tumor-to-liver signal intensity ratios (T/Ls) and qualitatively analyzed for tumor conspicuity and motion-induced image artifacts. Results: Quantitatively, T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images showed the highest SD/Ns among the three sequences, although the differences from the heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE sequence and the T2-weighted non-breath-hold TSE sequence were not statistically significant (p= 0.61 and 0.06, respectively). Heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images showed the highest T/Ls among the three sequences. The differences from the T2-weighted breath-hold TSE sequence and the T2-weighted non-breath-hold TSE sequence were statistically significant (p 〈 0.001). Qualitatively, breath-hold TSE images were superior to non-breath-hold TSE images in terms of tumor conspicuity (p 〈 0.01) and motion artifacts (p 〈 0.01). Conclusion: T2-weighted breath-hold TSE sequence is superior to T2-weighted non-breath-hold TSE sequence in the evaluation of hepatic hemangiomas on MR with a phased-array multicoil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Bile ducts, MR—Magnetic resonance (MR), comparative studies—Magnetic resonance (MR), half-Fourier imaging.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Background: To compare half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with two-dimensional turbo spin-echo (2D TSE) MRCP for imaging pancreatobiliary diseases. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with biliary or pancreatic disease underwent MRCP on a 1.0-T scanner with a body phased-array coil. A T2-weighted HASTE sequence (18 s) and a T2-weighted 2D TSE sequence (45 s) were used during a breath-hold by the patient. The source images and maximum intensity projection images of both sequences were reviewed independently by two radiologists. Results: Motion artifacts were more severely pronounced with 2D TSE sequences than with HASTE sequences (p 〈 0.001). All obstructions and their sites were accurately identified with both sequences. Filling defects (calculi) in bile ducts were identified in all 22 segments (100%) with HASTE-MRCP, whereas calculi in 19 of 22 segments (86%) were identified with 2D TSE-MRCP (p= 0.25). Three missed sites on 2D TSE-MRCP were intrahepatic bile ducts. Conclusions: HASTE-MRCP is superior to 2D TSE-MRCP in terms of detecting motion artifacts and visualization of the pancreatic ducts. HASTE-MRCP is comparable to 2D TSE-MRCP for visualization of the biliary ducts and their obstruction and is superior to 2D TSE-MRCP for identification of calculi in intrahepatic bile ducts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver—Neoplasms—US—CT—MR.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To verify characteristic features of hepatic dysplastic nodules at different imaging modalities. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with 37 dysplastic nodules of the liver (0.8–3.0 cm) underwent sonography (28 patients), computed tomography (CT; 24 patients), magnetic resonance (MR; 11 patients), and angiography (12 patients). Each nodule was analyzed for echogenicity, attenuation, signal intensity, and vascularity. Results: Echogenicity of nodules was high in 16 (43%), homogeneous in two (6%), and low in 19 (51%) of 37 nodules. Attenuation of nodules was high in one (7%), homogeneous in four (26%), and low in 10 (67%) of 15 nodules on the arterial-phase CT images; homogeneous in five (33%) and low in 10 (67%) of 15 nodules on the portal-phase CT images; and high in four (17%), homogeneous in six (26%), and low in 13 (57%) of 23 nodules on the delayed-phase CT images. Signal intensity of nodules was high in 15 (94%) and homogeneous in one (6%) of 16 nodules on T1-weighted MR images and was homogeneous in seven (44%) and low in nine (56%) of 16 nodules on T2-weighted MR images. Vascularity of nodules was avascular in 14 (88%) and slightly vascular in two (12%) of 16 nodules. Conclusions: Hepatic dysplastic nodules show diverse imaging characteristics with different imaging techniques; however, common imaging findings of hepatic dysplastic nodules are low echo, low attenuation, and high, low, or homogeneous intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR, and avascularity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver-neoplasms—CT-liver—Neoplasms— Liver-vessels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: We investigated the incidence and imaging features of hepatic neoplasms containing normal hepatic vessels. Methods: Among 3183 patients with various hepatic neoplasms, we found nine patients with normal hepatic vessels traversing hepatic neoplasms. The presence of mass effect on the vessel traversing hepatic neoplasms was evaluated. Other suggestive findings of neoplasms such as altered hepatic contour, portal vein thrombosis, mass effect on extratumoral vessel, and bile duct dilatation were analyzed. Results: Thirteen hepatic vessels (nine hepatic veins and four portal veins) extended through hepatic neoplasms in nine patients. Undisturbed hepatic vessels within the neoplasms were found in five patients with either primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasm. In one patient with undisturbed hepatic vessels within the neoplasm, there were no associated abnormal findings such as biliary dilatation, change of hepatic contour, or any changes involving the vessels external to neoplasms. Conclusion: Although rare, various primary and secondary hepatic neoplasms can have normal hepatic vessels passing through them without mass effect. However, correct diagnosis in most neoplasms would be possible with careful examination of associated findings. RID="" ID="" 〈E5〉Correspondence to:〈/E5〉 J. K. Han
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver, CT—Liver, neoplasm—Hemangioma.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate contrast-enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangioma according to size during hepatic arterial (30-s delay) and portal venous (65-s delay) phases of spiral computed tomography (CT). During a 10-month-period, 73 patients with 118 hemangiomas underwent two-phase spiral CT examination. The enhancement patterns of tumors were divided into four types based on the attenuation of surrounding liver parenchyma: peripherally nodular high, uniform high, iso, and low. The diameter of the tumors were 〈10 mm (n= 39), 11–20 mm (n= 33), and 〉21 mm (n= 46). Overall, the most common enhancement patterns of hemangioma were peripherally nodular high (66/118, 55.9%) during the arterial and portal venous phases. The second most common contrast-enhancement patterns of hemangioma were uniform high (15/118, 12.7%) during the arterial and portal venous phases. In tumors smaller than 20 mm, 11 (9.3%) had low-low attenuation and two (1.7%) had iso-low attenuation during the arterial and portal venous phases, respectively. In conclusion, at two-phase spiral CT, the most common contrast-enhancement patterns of hemangioma are peripherally nodular high and/or uniform high during the arterial and portal venous phases. However, hemangiomas smaller than 2 cm may have atypical enhancing patterns including low and iso-attenuation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Stomach—Gastric cancer—Magnetic resonance imaging—Contrast media.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To evaluate clinical usefulness of oral contrast agents (gadopentetate dimeglumine and water) and to assess proper magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluating advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by comparing different MR imaging techniques. Methods: Fifteen patients with AGC were imaged with a 1.0-T MR imager and body-array coil. All patients underwent surgery or laparascopic biopsy. Fast low-angle shot (FLASH), half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and true fast imaging with steady-state precession time (FISP) images were obtained after ingestion of 900 mL tap water in each patient, followed by postcontrast FLASH images after additional ingestion of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Qualitative analysis including T-staging of AGC and scoring of imaging quality and quantitative analysis were performed prospectively. Results: In image quality and diagnostic accuracy of T-staging, FLASH imaging showed results slightly superior to those of other imaging modalities, and there was no great difference between using water and Gd-DTPA as an oral contrast agent. As for cancer-to-gastric lumen contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), HASTE and true FISP imaging were superior to FLASH imaging with Gd-DTPA (p 〈 0.0001). In cancer-to-pancreas CNR, FLASH imaging without Gd-DTPA showed the best result. Conclusions: The use of Gd-DTPA as a positive contrast agent may not be imperative, and T1-weighted FLASH imaging in combination with true FISP imaging with ingestion of tap water can be very useful in evaluating AGC with MR imaging.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Bile ducts—Bile ducts, CT—Bile ducts, neoplasm.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To assess the accuracy of spiral computed tomography (CT) in predicting the resectability of Klatskin tumor as determined by vascular invasion. Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with Klatskin tumor who had undergone laparotomy were included in this study. The preoperative thin-section (5-mm-thick) spiral CT scans of these patients were assessed for the surgical resectability of tumor by evaluating the vascular invasion. The criterion for vascular invasion indicating unresectability was the tumoral invasion of the proper hepatic artery or main portal vein or simultaneous invasion of one side of the hepatic artery and the other side of the portal vein. Results: All nine patients with tumors thought to be unresectable on the basis of CT findings had tumors that were unresectable at surgery (positive predictive value, 100%). Of 12 patients with tumors thought to be resectable, six had resectable tumors (negative predictive value, 50%). Spiral CT failed to detect small hepatic metastasis (n= 1), lymph node metastasis (n= 1), extensive tumor (n= 2) and variation of bile duct (n= 2), which precluded surgical resection. Conclusion: Spiral CT is a reliable method for detecting vascular invasion and unresectable tumors. However, it has limitations in detecting variations of the bile duct or the intraductal extent of tumor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Stomach—Atypical—Adenoma—Depressed—Flat—Double-contrast barium study.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: To describe the radiologic findings of nonpolypoid gastric adenomas and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: During a 9-year period, we reviewed 49 pure gastric adenomas in 43 patients with positive radiologic findings. Of these adenomas, seven with atypical polypoid appearance were retrospectively included in the study. We reviewed these findings with double-contrast barium study and correlated them with the pathologic findings. Results: Of seven nonpolypoid adenomas, four were depressed and three were flat at pathologic examination. All were diagnosed as early gastric carcinoma (five as type IIc, one as type IIb, one as type IIa + IIc) in upper gastrointestinal series. Three were located in the gastric angle, two in the lower body, and two in the antrum. Size ranged from 10 mm to approximately 25 mm (mean = 15 mm). Six lesions had nodular surface and five had convergency of the mucosal folds. A shallow depressed area was seen in six lesions. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of gastric adenomas presents as a depressed or flat lesion on double-contrast barium study because of histologic characteristics of decreased subjacent mucosa. Because the nonpolypoid adenoma has a greater potentional for malignancy, more precaution is needed during the follow-up of this uncommon lesion.
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