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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-27
    Description: Mammalian genomes contain several billion base pairs of DNA that are packaged in chromatin fibres. At selected gene loci, cohesin complexes have been proposed to arrange these fibres into higher-order structures, but how important this function is for determining overall chromosome architecture and how the process is regulated are not well understood. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, here we show that depletion of the cohesin-associated protein Wapl stably locks cohesin on DNA, leads to clustering of cohesin in axial structures, and causes chromatin condensation in interphase chromosomes. These findings reveal that the stability of cohesin-DNA interactions is an important determinant of chromatin structure, and indicate that cohesin has an architectural role in interphase chromosome territories. Furthermore, we show that regulation of cohesin-DNA interactions by Wapl is important for embryonic development, expression of genes such as c-myc (also known as Myc), and cell cycle progression. In mitosis, Wapl-mediated release of cohesin from DNA is essential for proper chromosome segregation and protects cohesin from cleavage by the protease separase, thus enabling mitotic exit in the presence of functional cohesin complexes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tedeschi, Antonio -- Wutz, Gordana -- Huet, Sebastien -- Jaritz, Markus -- Wuensche, Annelie -- Schirghuber, Erika -- Davidson, Iain Finley -- Tang, Wen -- Cisneros, David A -- Bhaskara, Venugopal -- Nishiyama, Tomoko -- Vaziri, Alipasha -- Wutz, Anton -- Ellenberg, Jan -- Peters, Jan-Michael -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 26;501(7468):564-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12471. Epub 2013 Aug 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 7, 1030 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23975099" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Cycle/genetics ; Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatids/genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism ; *Chromosome Segregation/genetics ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; DNA/genetics/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Embryonic Development/genetics ; Endopeptidases/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genes, myc/genetics ; Interphase ; Mice ; Mitosis ; Prophase ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Separase
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-05-10
    Description: Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Jo Ann -- Nishiyama, Tomoaki -- Hasebe, Mitsuyasu -- Bowman, John L -- Gribskov, Michael -- dePamphilis, Claude -- Albert, Victor A -- Aono, Naoki -- Aoyama, Tsuyoshi -- Ambrose, Barbara A -- Ashton, Neil W -- Axtell, Michael J -- Barker, Elizabeth -- Barker, Michael S -- Bennetzen, Jeffrey L -- Bonawitz, Nicholas D -- Chapple, Clint -- Cheng, Chaoyang -- Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes -- Dacre, Michael -- DeBarry, Jeremy -- Dreyer, Ingo -- Elias, Marek -- Engstrom, Eric M -- Estelle, Mark -- Feng, Liang -- Finet, Cedric -- Floyd, Sandra K -- Frommer, Wolf B -- Fujita, Tomomichi -- Gramzow, Lydia -- Gutensohn, Michael -- Harholt, Jesper -- Hattori, Mitsuru -- Heyl, Alexander -- Hirai, Tadayoshi -- Hiwatashi, Yuji -- Ishikawa, Masaki -- Iwata, Mineko -- Karol, Kenneth G -- Koehler, Barbara -- Kolukisaoglu, Uener -- Kubo, Minoru -- Kurata, Tetsuya -- Lalonde, Sylvie -- Li, Kejie -- Li, Ying -- Litt, Amy -- Lyons, Eric -- Manning, Gerard -- Maruyama, Takeshi -- Michael, Todd P -- Mikami, Koji -- Miyazaki, Saori -- Morinaga, Shin-ichi -- Murata, Takashi -- Mueller-Roeber, Bernd -- Nelson, David R -- Obara, Mari -- Oguri, Yasuko -- Olmstead, Richard G -- Onodera, Naoko -- Petersen, Bent Larsen -- Pils, Birgit -- Prigge, Michael -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio -- Roberts, Alison W -- Sato, Yoshikatsu -- Scheller, Henrik Vibe -- Schulz, Burkhard -- Schulz, Christian -- Shakirov, Eugene V -- Shibagaki, Nakako -- Shinohara, Naoki -- Shippen, Dorothy E -- Sorensen, Iben -- Sotooka, Ryo -- Sugimoto, Nagisa -- Sugita, Mamoru -- Sumikawa, Naomi -- Tanurdzic, Milos -- Theissen, Gunter -- Ulvskov, Peter -- Wakazuki, Sachiko -- Weng, Jing-Ke -- Willats, William W G T -- Wipf, Daniel -- Wolf, Paul G -- Yang, Lixing -- Zimmer, Andreas D -- Zhu, Qihui -- Mitros, Therese -- Hellsten, Uffe -- Loque, Dominique -- Otillar, Robert -- Salamov, Asaf -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Shapiro, Harris -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Rokhsar, Daniel -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- GM065383/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM84051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM043644/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007757/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32-HG00035/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 20;332(6032):960-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1203810. Epub 2011 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. banksj@purdue.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/chemistry/genetics ; *Biological Evolution ; Bryopsida/genetics ; Chlamydomonas/chemistry/genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes, Plant ; *Genome, Plant ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Plant Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proteome/analysis ; RNA Editing ; RNA, Plant/genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Selaginellaceae/*genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0278-6915
    Keywords: [abr] 2''-O-GIV = 2''-O-glycosyl isovitexin ; [abr] BHT = butylated hydroxytoluene ; [abr] GC = gas chromatograph(y) ; [abr] NMH = N-methylhydrazine ; [abr] NPD = nitrogen-phosphorus detector ; [abr] SDS = sodium dodecyl sulfate
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 63 (1976), S. 165-167 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: TRH-neurons ; Immunoelectron microscopy ; Synapse ; Hypothalamus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunoreactive TRH-containing neurons and their synaptic associations were studied electron microscopically in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) of the rat hypothalamus. In propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated rats, the immunoreactive cell bodies in the PVN appeared to be activated, showing a hypertrophic perikaryon, well developed Golgi bodies and numerous secretory granules. No such alterations were evident in the TRH neurons in the DMH. These findings suggest that the PVN-TRH neurons are involved in the hypothalamic-hypophysial-thyroid axis. Further, it was shown that unlabeled nerve terminals containing small and large clear vesicles make synaptic contacts with the TRH perikarya in the PVN. Thus it is likely that PVN-TRH neurons are regulated both by thyroid hormones and by other neuronal signals. In the DMH, unlabeled nerve terminals containing small and large clear vesicles, and immunoreactive terminals form synapses with TRH neurons. Thus the DMH-TRH neurons may be under dual neuronal control. It was further noted that in the DMH and PVN, TRH nerve terminals make synaptic contacts with other unlabeled neurons. It is evident that TRH acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, although the origin of TRH terminals should be elucidated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Granulomatous angiitis ; Central nervous system ; Amyloid angiopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The brain of a 69-year-old man exhibited extensive granulomatous inflammation in the walls of arteries in the leptomeninges, associated with amyloid deposition in the media of the involved arteries. The extracranial arteries exhibited neither granulomatous inflammation nor amyloid deposition in their walls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  The epidermal basement membrane (BM) plays important roles in adhesion between epidermis and dermis, and in controlling epidermal differentiation. The BM has been reported to be damaged in sun-exposed skin. Although matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be involved in the BM damage, there is no good in vitro model for examining BM damage by MMPs or for exploring methods to protect the BM.Objectives  To examine the involvement of MMPs in BM damage and approaches to protect the BM from such damage by using an in vitro skin-equivalent (SE) model.Method  SE was prepared by culturing human keratinocytes on contracted collagen gel including human fibroblasts. MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9, laminin 5 and type IV and VII collagens were determined by specific sandwich ELISAs, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analysed by gelatin zymography. Histological examination of SE was also carried out.Results  Despite production of BM components such as laminin 5 and type IV and VII collagens in SEs, BM was rarely observed at the dermal–epidermal junction. Several MMPs, such as MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9, were observed to be present in conditioned media and some of them were in active forms. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 was not detected, although TIMP-1 was present. Synthetic MMP inhibitors, CGS27023A and MMP-inhibitor I, which inhibit MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9, markedly augmented deposition of laminin 5 and type IV and VII collagens at the dermal–epidermal junction, resulting in the formation of continuous epidermal BM.Conclusions  Our results indicate that MMPs are involved in the degradation of BM in SEs, and that MMP inhibitors exert a protective effect against BM damage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Fibulin-5 was recently found as a secreted extracellular matrix protein that functions as a scaffold for elastic fibres. However, the distribution of fibulin-5 in human skin and its changes during the ageing process are not known.Objectives  To explore the involvement of fibulin-5 in skin ageing, the age-dependent changes in fibulin-5 localization in human skin were examined compared with those of other elastic fibre components including elastin, fibrillin-1 and fibulin-2.Methods  The distribution of elastin, fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2, fibulin-2 and fibulin-5 was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry using their specific antibodies. Skin samples were recovered from 12 healthy subjects undergoing plastic surgery. Ultraviolet (UV) B-irradiated or control nonirradiated buttock skin samples were obtained from two healthy volunteers at 2 days after the irradiation at 2 minimal erythemal doses.Results  In the reticular dermis of young sun-protected skin from the upper arm, fibulin-5 colocalized with the other elastic fibre components, while in the papillary dermis fibulin-5 showed candelabra-like structures perpendicular to the epidermis with an unstained area just beneath the epidermis, which was similar to that of elastin but not fibrillin-1. Fibulin-5 in the reticular dermis decreased and disappeared with age even in sun-protected skin from the thigh, abdomen and upper arm. In sun-exposed skin, fibulin-5 was extremely reduced in the dermis of cheek skin even from a 20-year-old man. UVB irradiation reduced fibulin-5, fibulin-2 and elastin markedly, moderately and weakly, respectively, compared with levels in control nontreated skin. Interestingly, the deposition of fibulin-5 was increased in solar elastosis, like that of other elastic fibre components.Conclusions  These results suggest that fibulin-5 is a good marker of skin ageing and that the earlier loss of fibulin-5 may involve age-dependent changes in other elastic fibre components.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Laminin 5 is known to induce the adhesion, spreading and migration of human keratinocytes. In skin wound healing, laminin 5 deposition beneath migrating keratinocytes occurs early and is followed by the formation of hemidesmosomes and then basement membrane.Objectives  To identify factors that regulate the synthesis and secretion of laminin 5 by human keratinocytes during acute wound healing.Methods  Laminin 5 synthesis by human keratinocytes was determined by a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the total amount of laminin 5 synthesized, laminin 5 deposited on culture dishes and inside cells was solubilized by detergent solution and determined separately from conditioned medium, and the total laminin 5 synthesis was calculated. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the expression levels of laminin 5 genes, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2, which correspond to the α3, β3 and γ2 chains of laminin 5. We also examined the effects of lysophospholipids, proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, which are components in acute wound fluids, on laminin 5 synthesis in keratinocytes.Results  Human acute wound fluid at days 1, 2 and 3 stimulated laminin 5 synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, although findings are restricted to one case. Human serum also increased laminin 5 production by human keratinocytes as strongly as the wound fluid did, suggesting that the major active components in acute wound fluid may be derived from those in human serum. Lysophospholipids such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) increased laminin 5 synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Among growth factors, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, interferon-γ and keratinocyte growth factor increased laminin 5 production in keratinocytes, while platelet-derived growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were ineffective. Although interleukin-1α had no effect, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TGF-β1 also stimulated laminin 5 synthesis, and TGF-α and TGF-β1 showed a synergistic effect. Neutralizing antibodies to TGF-α and TGF-β1 markedly inhibited the enhanced laminin 5 synthesis by human serum, suggesting that TGF-α and TGF-β1 are important components to increase laminin 5 in human serum. In line with the increase of laminin 5 synthesis, the expression levels of all three laminin 5 genes were also augmented by TGF-α and TGF-β1.Conclusions  Laminin 5 synthesis in human keratinocytes was augmented by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as TGF-α, TGF-β1 and TNF-α, and lysophospholipids such as S1P, LPA and LPCs, which are supposed to be present in acute wound fluid. The increased laminin 5 protein in the wound area presumably enhances wound repair by stimulating adhesion and migration of keratinocytes on the wound bed and by facilitating basement membrane formation at the dermal–epidermal junction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0012-1606
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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