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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-07-27
    Description: Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662966/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662966/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jones, David T W -- Jager, Natalie -- Kool, Marcel -- Zichner, Thomas -- Hutter, Barbara -- Sultan, Marc -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Pugh, Trevor J -- Hovestadt, Volker -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Rausch, Tobias -- Warnatz, Hans-Jorg -- Ryzhova, Marina -- Bender, Sebastian -- Sturm, Dominik -- Pleier, Sabrina -- Cin, Huriye -- Pfaff, Elke -- Sieber, Laura -- Wittmann, Andrea -- Remke, Marc -- Witt, Hendrik -- Hutter, Sonja -- Tzaridis, Theophilos -- Weischenfeldt, Joachim -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Avci, Meryem -- Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav -- Zapatka, Marc -- Weber, Ursula D -- Wang, Qi -- Lasitschka, Barbel -- Bartholomae, Cynthia C -- Schmidt, Manfred -- von Kalle, Christof -- Ast, Volker -- Lawerenz, Chris -- Eils, Jurgen -- Kabbe, Rolf -- Benes, Vladimir -- van Sluis, Peter -- Koster, Jan -- Volckmann, Richard -- Shih, David -- Betts, Matthew J -- Russell, Robert B -- Coco, Simona -- Tonini, Gian Paolo -- Schuller, Ulrich -- Hans, Volkmar -- Graf, Norbert -- Kim, Yoo-Jin -- Monoranu, Camelia -- Roggendorf, Wolfgang -- Unterberg, Andreas -- Herold-Mende, Christel -- Milde, Till -- Kulozik, Andreas E -- von Deimling, Andreas -- Witt, Olaf -- Maass, Eberhard -- Rossler, Jochen -- Ebinger, Martin -- Schuhmann, Martin U -- Fruhwald, Michael C -- Hasselblatt, Martin -- Jabado, Nada -- Rutkowski, Stefan -- von Bueren, Andre O -- Williamson, Dan -- Clifford, Steven C -- McCabe, Martin G -- Collins, V Peter -- Wolf, Stephan -- Wiemann, Stefan -- Lehrach, Hans -- Brors, Benedikt -- Scheurlen, Wolfram -- Felsberg, Jorg -- Reifenberger, Guido -- Northcott, Paul A -- Taylor, Michael D -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Pomeroy, Scott L -- Yaspo, Marie-Laure -- Korbel, Jan O -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Eils, Roland -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Lichter, Peter -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109467/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):100-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11284.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22832583" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/classification/diagnosis/*genetics/pathology ; Child ; Chromatin/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Histone Demethylases/genetics ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/classification/diagnosis/*genetics/pathology ; Methylation ; Mutation/genetics ; Mutation Rate ; Neoplasm Proteins/genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/genetics ; Polyploidy ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Signal Transduction ; T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other forms of variation in extent, origin and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (that is, copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analysing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mills, Ryan E -- Walter, Klaudia -- Stewart, Chip -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Chen, Ken -- Alkan, Can -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Yoon, Seungtai Chris -- Ye, Kai -- Cheetham, R Keira -- Chinwalla, Asif -- Conrad, Donald F -- Fu, Yutao -- Grubert, Fabian -- Hajirasouliha, Iman -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Iakoucheva, Lilia M -- Iqbal, Zamin -- Kang, Shuli -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Korn, Joshua -- Khurana, Ekta -- Kural, Deniz -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Leng, Jing -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Li, Yingrui -- Lin, Chang-Yun -- Luo, Ruibang -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Nemesh, James -- Peckham, Heather E -- Rausch, Tobias -- Scally, Aylwyn -- Shi, Xinghua -- Stromberg, Michael P -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Urban, Alexander Eckehart -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wu, Jiantao -- Zhang, Yujun -- Zhang, Zhengdong D -- Batzer, Mark A -- Ding, Li -- Marth, Gabor T -- McVean, Gil -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Snyder, Michael -- Wang, Jun -- Ye, Kenny -- Eichler, Evan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Lee, Charles -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Korbel, Jan O -- 1000 Genomes Project -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077014/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000758/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S2/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S3/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091350/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature09708.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-10-04
    Description: Structural variants are implicated in numerous diseases and make up the majority of varying nucleotides among human genomes. Here we describe an integrated set of eight structural variant classes comprising both balanced and unbalanced variants, which we constructed using short-read DNA sequencing data and statistically phased onto haplotype blocks in 26 human populations. Analysing this set, we identify numerous gene-intersecting structural variants exhibiting population stratification and describe naturally occurring homozygous gene knockouts that suggest the dispensability of a variety of human genes. We demonstrate that structural variants are enriched on haplotypes identified by genome-wide association studies and exhibit enrichment for expression quantitative trait loci. Additionally, we uncover appreciable levels of structural variant complexity at different scales, including genic loci subject to clusters of repeated rearrangement and complex structural variants with multiple breakpoints likely to have formed through individual mutational events. Our catalogue will enhance future studies into structural variant demography, functional impact and disease association.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sudmant, Peter H -- Rausch, Tobias -- Gardner, Eugene J -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Huddleston, John -- Zhang, Yan -- Ye, Kai -- Jun, Goo -- Hsi-Yang Fritz, Markus -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Malhotra, Ankit -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Shi, Xinghua -- Paolo Casale, Francesco -- Chen, Jieming -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Dayama, Gargi -- Chen, Ken -- Malig, Maika -- Chaisson, Mark J P -- Walter, Klaudia -- Meiers, Sascha -- Kashin, Seva -- Garrison, Erik -- Auton, Adam -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Jasmine Mu, Xinmeng -- Alkan, Can -- Antaki, Danny -- Bae, Taejeong -- Cerveira, Eliza -- Chines, Peter -- Chong, Zechen -- Clarke, Laura -- Dal, Elif -- Ding, Li -- Emery, Sarah -- Fan, Xian -- Gujral, Madhusudan -- Kahveci, Fatma -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Kong, Yu -- Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo -- McCarthy, Shane -- Flicek, Paul -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Marth, Gabor -- Mason, Christopher E -- Menelaou, Androniki -- Muzny, Donna M -- Nelson, Bradley J -- Noor, Amina -- Parrish, Nicholas F -- Pendleton, Matthew -- Quitadamo, Andrew -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Schadt, Eric E -- Romanovitch, Mallory -- Schlattl, Andreas -- Sebra, Robert -- Shabalin, Andrey A -- Untergasser, Andreas -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wang, Min -- Yu, Fuli -- Zhang, Chengsheng -- Zhang, Jing -- Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun -- Zhou, Wanding -- Zichner, Thomas -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Batzer, Mark A -- McCarroll, Steven A -- 1000 Genomes Project Consortium -- Mills, Ryan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Bashir, Ali -- Stegle, Oliver -- Devine, Scott E -- Lee, Charles -- Eichler, Evan E -- Korbel, Jan O -- P01HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007068/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RR029676-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR19895/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT085532/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT104947/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):75-81. doi: 10.1038/nature15394.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, 3720 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, Washington 98195-5065, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 801 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Health Sciences Research, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, BASS 432 &437, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Pressler St., Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, 10 Discovery 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Computational Medicine &Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 500 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Biology, Boston College, 355 Higgins Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Bina Technologies, Roche Sequencing, 555 Twin Dolphin Drive, Redwood City, California 94065, USA. ; Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey. ; University of California San Diego (UCSD), 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA. ; Department of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Siteman Cancer Center, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 1241 Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300RA, The Netherlands. ; Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine, 1305 York Avenue, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, 413 East 69th St, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CG, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine, New York School of Natural Sciences, 1428 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Center for Biomarker Research and Precision Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1112 East Clay Street, McGuire Hall, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0581, USA. ; Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Computer Science, Yale University, 51 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Department of Graduate Studies - Life Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26432246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation Rate ; *Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-01-31
    Description: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres, were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwartzentruber, Jeremy -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Liu, Xiao-Yang -- Jones, David T W -- Pfaff, Elke -- Jacob, Karine -- Sturm, Dominik -- Fontebasso, Adam M -- Quang, Dong-Anh Khuong -- Tonjes, Martje -- Hovestadt, Volker -- Albrecht, Steffen -- Kool, Marcel -- Nantel, Andre -- Konermann, Carolin -- Lindroth, Anders -- Jager, Natalie -- Rausch, Tobias -- Ryzhova, Marina -- Korbel, Jan O -- Hielscher, Thomas -- Hauser, Peter -- Garami, Miklos -- Klekner, Almos -- Bognar, Laszlo -- Ebinger, Martin -- Schuhmann, Martin U -- Scheurlen, Wolfram -- Pekrun, Arnulf -- Fruhwald, Michael C -- Roggendorf, Wolfgang -- Kramm, Christoph -- Durken, Matthias -- Atkinson, Jeffrey -- Lepage, Pierre -- Montpetit, Alexandre -- Zakrzewska, Magdalena -- Zakrzewski, Krzystof -- Liberski, Pawel P -- Dong, Zhifeng -- Siegel, Peter -- Kulozik, Andreas E -- Zapatka, Marc -- Guha, Abhijit -- Malkin, David -- Felsberg, Jorg -- Reifenberger, Guido -- von Deimling, Andreas -- Ichimura, Koichi -- Collins, V Peter -- Witt, Hendrik -- Milde, Till -- Witt, Olaf -- Zhang, Cindy -- Castelo-Branco, Pedro -- Lichter, Peter -- Faury, Damien -- Tabori, Uri -- Plass, Christoph -- Majewski, Jacek -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Jabado, Nada -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 29;482(7384):226-31. doi: 10.1038/nature10833.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A4, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286061" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Child ; Chromatin/*genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/*genetics ; DNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Exome/genetics ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Glioblastoma/*genetics ; Histones/*genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Telomere/genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Keywords: DISTINCT ; GENE ; BREAST-CANCER ; COPY-NUMBER ; SONIC HEDGEHOG ; GERMLINE ; LI-FRAUMENI-SYNDROME ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; telomere length ; FAMILIAL SYNDROME
    Abstract: Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis of a Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) brain tumor from a patient with a germline TP53 mutation (Li-Fraumeni syndrome), uncovering massive, complex chromosome rearrangements. Integrating TP53 status with microarray and deep sequencing-based DNA rearrangement data in additional patients reveals a striking association between TP53 mutation and chromothripsis in SHH-MBs. Analysis of additional tumor entities substantiates a link between TP53 mutation and chromothripsis, and indicates a context-specific role for p53 in catastrophic DNA rearrangements. Among these, we observed a strong association between somatic TP53 mutations and chromothripsis in acutemyeloid leukemia. These findings connect p53 status and chr
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22265402
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; ABERRATIONS ; METHYLATION ; EMBRYONIC STEM-CELLS ; MULTIFORME ; HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS ; TELOMERES ; INTEGRATED GENOMIC ANALYSIS ; ATRX
    Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases(1-4). To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked)(5) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres(6,7), were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22286061
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; GENES ; ACTIVATION ; MUTATIONS ; SUBGROUPS ; LANDSCAPE ; TETRAPLOID TUMOR-CELLS ; TBR1
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22832583
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; TUMORS ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; ADULT ; MOUSE MODELS ; PEDIATRIC MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; HEDGEHOG PATHWAY INHIBITOR ; TERT PROMOTER MUTATIONS ; ITRACONAZOLE
    Abstract: Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations involved PTCH1 (across all age groups), SUFU (infants, including germline), and SMO (adults). Children 〉3 years old harbored an excess of downstream MYCN and GLI2 amplifications and frequent TP53 mutations, often in the germline, all of which were rare in infants and adults. Functional assays in different SHH-MB xenograft models demonstrated that SHH-MBs harboring a PTCH1 mutation were responsive to SMO inhibition, whereas tumors harboring an SUFU mutation or MYCN amplification were primarily resistant.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24651015
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