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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-24
    Description: Scalable quantum computing can be achieved only if quantum bits are manipulated in a fault-tolerant fashion. Topological error correction--a method that combines topological quantum computation with quantum error correction--has the highest known tolerable error rate for a local architecture. The technique makes use of cluster states with topological properties and requires only nearest-neighbour interactions. Here we report the experimental demonstration of topological error correction with an eight-photon cluster state. We show that a correlation can be protected against a single error on any quantum bit. Also, when all quantum bits are simultaneously subjected to errors with equal probability, the effective error rate can be significantly reduced. Our work demonstrates the viability of topological error correction for fault-tolerant quantum information processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yao, Xing-Can -- Wang, Tian-Xiong -- Chen, Hao-Ze -- Gao, Wei-Bo -- Fowler, Austin G -- Raussendorf, Robert -- Chen, Zeng-Bing -- Liu, Nai-Le -- Lu, Chao-Yang -- Deng, You-Jin -- Chen, Yu-Ao -- Pan, Jian-Wei -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;482(7386):489-94. doi: 10.1038/nature10770.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Branch, National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Shanghai 201315, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22358838" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims:  To investigate whether cells with features similar to those of the oval cells of rodents and the small epithelial cells (SEC) recently described in certain human liver diseases, i.e. hepatic progenitor cells, also occur in human liver cirrhosis.Methods and results:  Surgical specimens from 35 cases of hepatitis B virus-positive cirrhosis (30 cases containing hepatocellular carcinoma) were investigated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 7 and albumin. Electron microscopic investigations, and immunoelectron microscopic investigations using the same antibodies and a double-labelling technique were performed in 15 and seven cases, respectively. SEC were observed in proliferated bile ductules, at the margins of regenerating nodules and in the fibrous septa in all cases of cirrhosis. The SEC were morphologically similar to the SEC described previously, and to the oval cells seen in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. They were characterized by their small size, oval shape, scanty electron-dense or electron-lucent cytoplasm, a high nucleo–cytoplasmic ratio, tonofilaments and intercellular junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the SEC co-expressed cytokeratin 7 and albumin. Both relatively undifferentiated SEC and SEC with morphological and immunophenotypical signs of differentiation towards biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes were found.Conclusions:  SEC that exhibit morphological and immunophenotypical features of the SEC seen in certain other liver diseases are found in cirrhosis. These findings further support the hypothesis that a bipotent hepatic stem cell that may give rise to biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes exists in the human liver.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-10
    Description: Porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2), an immunosuppression pathogen, is often found to increase the risk of other pathogenic infections. Yet the relative immune mechanisms determining the susceptibility of PCV2-infected animals remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed that PCV2 infection suppressed IL-12p40 expression and host Th1 immune response, leading to a weakened pathogenic clearance upon porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or Haemophilus parasuis infection. PCV2 infection suppressed pathogens, LPS/IFN-, or LPS/R848-induced IL-12p40 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages. PCV2 capsid (Cap) was the major component to suppress IL-12p40 induction by LPS/IFN-, LPS/R848, PRRSV, or H. parasuis . Either wild-type PCV2 or mutants PCV2–replicase 1 and PCV type 1–Cap2, which contained PCV2 Cap, significantly decreased IL-12p40 levels and increased the replication of PRRSV and H. parasuis in the lung tissues relative to mock or PCV type 1 infection. gC1qR, a Cap binding protein, was not involved in IL-12p40 induction but mediated the inhibitory effect of PCV2 Cap on IL-12p40 induction. PCV2 also activated PI3K/Akt1 and p38 MAPK signalings to inhibit IL-12p40 expression via inhibition of NF-B p65 binding to il12B promoter and upregulation of miR-23a and miR-29b. Knockdown of Akt1 and p38 MAPK downregulated miR-23a and miR-29b and increased IL-12p40 expression. Inhibition of miR-23a and miR-29b attenuated the inhibitory effect of PCV2 on IL-12p40 induction, resulting in an increased IL-12p40 expression and Th1 cell population and reduced susceptibility to PRRSV or H. parasuis . Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCV2 infection suppresses IL-12p40 expression to lower host Th1 immunity to increase the risk of other pathogenic infection via gC1qR-mediated PI3K/Akt1 and p38 MAPK signaling activation.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Description: Biochar, as a soil amendment in agriculture, has attracted considerable attention. In the study, the fate and toxicity of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl were evaluated in soils with and without 5% rice husk biochar amendment. Fenoxaprop-ethyl and metabolite fenoxaprop degradation followed first-order kinetics in the two soils. Fenoxaprop-ethyl decreased fast with half-lives less than 2 days. Large amounts of fenoxaprop formed and remained in the control soil. However, fenoxaprop was much lower in the biochar-amended soil with reduction over 85% on the 35th day. The estimated half-lives of fenoxaprop were 56.9 and 1.5 days in the control and biochar-amended soils, respectively. Biochar restrained the formation and promoted the dissipation of fenoxaprop. Biological indicator earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) were used in a 14-day acute toxicity test. Fenoxaprop-ethyl showed low toxicity to earthworms with LC 50 value of 322.9 µg g –1 . Biochar amendment was non-toxic to earthworms and effectively reduced the toxicity. The results suggested that the application of biochar may reduce the risks of fenoxaprop-ethyl in the soil environment.
    Keywords: environmental chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Cholinesterase activity (ChA), the effective biomarker for organophosphate pesticide exposure, is possibly affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cell-cycle-related genes. One hundred and eighty workers with long-term exposure to omethoate and 115 healthy controls were recruited to explore the gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. The acetylthiocholine and dithio-bis-(nitrobenzoic acid) method was used to detect the cholinesterase activities in whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by the PCR-RFLP and direct PCR electrophoresis methods. Statistical results showed that the cholinesterase activities of whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma in the exposure group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( p 〈 0.001), and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities were associated with gender, smoking and drinking in the exposure group ( p 〈 0.05). Single-locus analyses showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the ChA among the genotypes CC, CA and AA of the p21 rs1801270 locus in the control group ( p = 0.033), but not in the exposure group. A significant interaction between genes and environmental factors (i.e. p53 , p21 , mdm2, gender, smoking and drinking) affecting ChA was found through a generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis. These obtained markers will be useful in further marker-assisted selection in workers with exposure to omethoate.
    Keywords: molecular biology, genetics, environmental science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Recent studies revealed that acetylation is a widely used protein modification in prokaryotic organisms. The major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB have been found to be involved in basic physiological processes, such as primary metabolism, chemotaxis, and stress responses, in Escherichia coli and Salmonella . However, little is known about protein acetylation modifications in Yersinia pestis , a lethal pathogen responsible for millions of human deaths in three worldwide pandemics. Here we found that Yp_0659 and Yp_1760 of Y. pestis encode the major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB, respectively, which can acetylate and deacetylate PhoP enzymatically in vitro . Protein acetylation impairment in cobB and yfiQ mutants greatly decreased bacterial tolerance to cold, hot, high-salt, and acidic environments. Our comparative transcriptomic data revealed that the strongly decreased tolerance to stress stimuli was probably related to downregulation of the genes encoding the heat shock proteins (HtpG, HslV, HslR, and IbpA), cold shock proteins (CspC and CspA1), and acid resistance proteins (HdeB and AdiA). We found that the reversible acetylation mediated by CobB and YfiQ conferred attenuation of virulence, probably partially due to the decreased expression of the psaABCDEF operon, which encodes Psa fimbriae that play a key role in virulence of Y. pestis . This is the first report, to our knowledge, on the roles of protein acetylation modification in stress responses, biofilm formation, and virulence of Y. pestis .
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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