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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Complement ; Decay-accelerating factor ; Repetitive sequence ; Gene structure ; Serine/threonine-rich region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) protects cells from autologous complement attack on self cell membranes. We have previously reported that the seventh exon encoding the serine/threonine-rich(S/T)-abc region of the guinea pig DAF gene is composed of five homologous repeats of about 51 base pairs, and that differential usage of these repeats produces the various lengths observed in the S/T region of guinea pig DAF. In this study, we found that the seventh intron of the guinea pig DAF gene was wholly composed of 18 tandem repeats homologous to the repeating unit of the S/T-abc exon. This type of repetitive structure, although the number of repeats was variable, was also found in the corresponding exons and introns of all DAF genes of other species so far tested including human and seven other primates and mouse, in which alternative splicing in this region has not been found. This suggested that generation of the repetitive sequences spanning the exon and intron regions had occurred before the diversification of these species. In addition, all the intron sequences of the tested DAF genes had no stop codon when they were presumably translated in the same reading frame as the seventh and eighth exons, except for that of one of two duplicated mouse DAF genes. These findings and significant interspecies identities of the intron sequence suggest that the intron sequence conceivably could be translated in some tissues and/or in some stages of development although to date we have not yet succeeded in detecting mRNA for this region.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the structure of LI family members and the consensus sequences. The human consensus sequence was deduced from Tj8G41 (ref. 9), KpnA (ref. 8), Hindl.9 (ref. 5), pCDKpnI-4 and pCDKpnI-8 (ref. 6), HH10 (ref. 25 and K. Yoshioka et a/., unpublished), Hspc6 (ref. 26 and ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) ; conjugated metabolites ; hepatobiliary transport ; 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethyl-2-methylamino-4-(3-pyridylmethyl) benzothiazole (E3040) ; liver perfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. Previously, we found that the biliary excretion of the 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethyl-2-methylamino-4-(3-pyridylmethyl) benzothiazole (E3040) glucuronide is severely impaired in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR), while that of sulfate remains normal (Takenaka et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Then, 274: 1362–1369, 1995). The purpose of the present study is to clarify the mechanisms for impairment of the biliary excretion of E3040 glucuronide in EHBR. Methods. We kinetically analyzed the disposition of the conjugates in the perfused liver at steady state. The uptake of the conjugates into the isolated canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) was also examined. Results. At steady state, the bile/liver unbound concentration ratios of the conjugates were 40-400 in both rat strains, indicating a highly concentrated process. The biliary excretion clearance (CLu,bile) of the glucuronide, defined for the unbound concentration in the liver, was decreased in EHBR to 1/30 of that in normal rats, whereas the CLu,bile of the sulfate was comparable between the two rat strains. In vitro, the transport of E3040 glucuronide into CMV prepared from SD rats exhibited the ATP dependency, whereas minimal effect of ATP was observed on the uptake of the glucuronide into CMV from EHBR. In contrast, the uptake of E3040 sulfate was comparable between SD rats and EHBR. Furthermore, ATP did not stimulate the uptake of sulfate into the CMVs. Conclusions. It was suggested (1) that the excretion of E3040 glucuronide across the bile canalicular membrane is mediated by the primary active transporter which is defective in EHBR and (2) that the bile canalicular transport system for E3040 sulfate is different from that for the glucuronide in that the former remains normal in EHBR.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Pan troglodytes ; DNA typing ; Chimpanzee ; Paternity test ; Dinucleotide repeats ; GT/AC repeats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Previously designed primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying microsatellite DNA segments containing GT/AC dinucleotide repeats in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) genome were used for paternity testing in a breeding colony in captivity. Combinations of three PCR primers identified the fathers of all the tested 40 chimpanzees born in an eight-year period. The results suggested: (1) a positive (though not conclusive) correlation between male rank and number of offspring; (2) choice of mating partners by the female rather than by the male; and (3) absence of stable mating pairs over the years. For studies of chimpanzees in captivity and in the wild, these primers should be useful for paternity testing, for investigating genetic variations, and for improving genetic maintenance of breeding colonies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Patas monkey ; Paternity test ; Mating strategy ; Mating system ; Social evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mating behavior and paternity of offspring of wild patas monkeys were studied at Kala Maloue National Park, Cameroon. Observation of patas groups over three years revealed that multi-male situations occurred after takeover of the position of a resident male. Direct observation of behavior showed that resident males (harem males) occupied only 31% of mating in multi-male situations and 100% in one-male situations. DNA-typing revealed that resident males sired two of four of infants in the one-male situation and four of five in the multi-male situation. Under the two years cycle of the one-male situation and the multi-male situation, calculation shows that resident males sired more offspring than sneakers both in observation and paternity testing. Sneak mating occurred during both one-male and multi-male situations, and resident males performed compensatory mating, with dilution of sneaker sperm; these activities explain the discrepancy found between observation of mating and results of paternity discrimination.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Japanese macaque ; Paternity test ; Mating behaviour ; Hormonal status ; Estimated ovulation ; DNA fingerprinting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The mating behaviour and reproductive success of male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were studied in relation to the female sexual cycles, which were monitored from the plasma profiles of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones. Based on observations of the mating behaviour during four successive mating seasons and paternity identification by DNA fingerprinting in 35 out of 37 offspring born in the subsequent birth seasons, the correlations between (1) male dominance rank and timing of mating, and (2) male dominance rank and reproductive success were examined. The results may be summarized as follows. (1) The number of copulations with ejaculation by any male was positively correlated with the male dominance rank, but not with the identified numbers of offspring fathered by each male. (2) Males could not choose ovulatory females as mating partners: the number of copulations with ejaculation with females during ovulatory weeks was not related to the male's rank. Monopolized copulations in consortship were mostly observed between high-ranking males and non-lactating parous females after conception. (3) Paternity testing showed that the male copulating most frequently with a female was not the identified father in 11 out of 15 cases. Prediction of the fathers of offspring was difficult even from the number of copulations occurring at around the estimated time of ovulation. An adaptive explanation of these correlations is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Bossou (Guinea) ; Paternity: Inter-group relationship ; Chimpanzee ; DNA typing ; Migration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A small group of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, southeastern Guinea, is semi-isolated, occupying a home-range which is several kilometers from those of other groups. The group has had only one adult male since 1985, raising the probability of inbreeding. Direct observation suggests that this male was the father of all infants born in the group since 1985. In 1991 individually identified samples of food wadges, hair, and feces were collected from most of the group members. These samples were analyzed using GT dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms to determine familial relationships. The genetic analysis revealed that the resident adult male was the probable father of only three out of the four infants analyzed. It is suspected that an adult male from a neighboring group was the father of the fourth infant, born in late 1986 or early 1987.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Primates 23 (1982), S. 605-609 
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Hemoglobin ; Variant hemoglobin ; Macaca fascicularis ; Hb Bali (Macaca) ; Primates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A variant hemoglobin due to structural change in the β chain was found in the central part of Bali island, Indonesia, during field studies on the genetic variation of the Indonesian crabeating monkey (Macaca fascicularis), and was named Hb Bali (Macaca). Structural analysis yielded the following results. (1) The amino acid sequence of the normal β chain of the crab-eating monkey coincided with that of the Japanese monkey (M. fuscata) and the pig-tailed monkey (M. nemestrina). (2) Asn at the 80th position from the amino terminal of the β chain was substituted by Lys in Hb Bali. This substitution appeared to have little harmful effect on the carrier, since the hematological characteristics of the heterozygous carriers were not different from those of normal individuals.
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