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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Cancer Research ; Immunology ; Oncology ; Cell Biology ; Biomedicine ; Immunology ; Cancer Research ; Oncology ; Cell Biology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Controversies in Neoplastic Myeloplasia -- Differentiation of Murine Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells -- Human MDSCs -- Ex Vivo MDSC Differentiation Models -- Immunoregulatory myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment -- Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3: A Master Regulator of Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells -- Future Perspectives
    Abstract: The book starts with an introduction to and history of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), followed by a description of their differentiation, their role in the tumour microenvironment and their therapeutic targeting. It closes with an outlook on future developments. In cancer patients, myelopoiesis is perturbed and instead of generating immunogenic myeloid cells (such as dendritic cells, inflammatory macrophages and granulocytes), there is an increase in highly immature MDSCs. These cells are distributed systemically, resulting in general immunosuppression. They also infiltrate tumours, promoting their progression and metastasis by inhibiting the natural anti-tumour immune response. As these cells also interact with classical anti-neoplastic treatments, they have become major therapeutic targets in the pharmaceutical industry and in oncology research
    Pages: IX, 102 p. 8 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2016.
    ISBN: 9783319268217
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Bestatin is a low molecular weight aminopeptidase inhibitor originally isolated from culture filtrates of Streptomyces olivoreticuli. The serum pharmacokinetics in mice are dependent on route of administration, with a short t1/2 (1.69 min t1/2α and 12.8 min t1/2β), but a high initial serum level following i.v. administration. When administered via the i.p., s.c., i.m., or p.o. routes of administration, bestatin had serum t1/2βs of 8.56, 16.91, 19.25, or 15.4 min, respectively. The maximum area under the curve (concentration×time) occurred following i.v. and i.m. administration, with a lower level following p.o. or i.p. administration. Bestatin had therapeutic activity for experimental metastases, not only following i.v., i.p., and i.m. routes of administration but also following oral administration. Because of its brief serum t1/2, bestatin's therapeutic activity depends on aggressive (either daily or twice daily injection, especially following p.o. administration) and high-dose administration. Thus, the rate-limiting aspect of bestatin's therapeutic activity appears to be associated with its pharmacokinetics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The heptanoyl tripeptide, FK-565 is a biological response modifier with potent therapeutic properties for the treatment of experimental and spontaneous metastases. Doses of FK-565 greater than 5 mg/kg are required for in vivo augmentation of natural killer cells, macrophages, and for therapeutic activity, presumably because FK-565 is a peptide small molecular mass which is rapidly degraded and excreted. Optimal therapeutic activity is observed at approximately 25–50 mg/kg FK-565, administered i.v. three times per week for 4 weeks. In addition to its therapeutic properties, which were consistently greater than the positive control at optimal doses, FK-565 had significant immunoaugmentary properties for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its therapeutic activity is due to immune augmentation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The immunological characteristics of two series of metastatic variants of restricted genetic origin were related to their lung-colony-forming potential. A series of metastatic variants was isolated from a tumor-cell population in which heterogeneity appeared following short-term in vivo passage, while a second series of variants were immunoselected in vitro for resistance to antibody-complement-mediated cell lysis. In the case of the first series, the sensitivity of the individual variants to cell-mediated and antibody-complement-mediated cytotoxicity appeared to be partly determined by the number and rate of loss of antibody-binding sites on the cell surface. These characteristics also correlated with the efficiency of experimental metastasis in the animal. We compared the results reported herein with our previous studies of nonimmune parameters for this series of metastatic variants, and we conclude that immunological differences can be important to the efficiency of lung-colony formation. However, in the case of the second series of variants, despite selection in vitro for resistance to antibody-complement-mediated cell lysis, the behavior of these variants in the lung colony assay could not be predicted by the immunologic parameters examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this report we describe the characterization of the immunomodulatory efficiency and therapeutic properties of thymosin fraction five (F5). We consistently observed the immunostimulation of T-cell activity in assays of allogeneic mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) and the development of cytotoxic effector cells in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte tumor response-cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay (MLTR-CMC). No induction of suppressor cell activity was observed. Thymosin F5 also acted successfully as an adjuvant when admixed with irradiated tumor cells. We were unable to demonstrate either NK cell or macrophage activation by thymosin F5. Therapeutic protocols using thymosin F5 and directed against pre-existing experimental and spontaneous metastases, had a significant immunotherapeutic potential.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Chemotherapy ; CD4 ; CD8 ; Mitogen ; Thymus ; FACS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In these studies, we examined the effect of a maximum-tolerated, split-dose chemotherapy protocol of cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea carmustine on neutrophil and lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood (PBL), thymus, bone marrow and spleen. It was found that this protocol of polychemotherapy, modeled after the induction protocol used with autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer, suppressed both B and T cell populations and T cell function at times when the absolute neutrophil count had returned to normal or supernormal numbers. In the peripheral blood, 7 days following initiation of chemotherapy, there was a twofold increase in the percentage of granulocytes as compared to the level in control animals on the basis of a differential count. The polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) frequency in the bone marrow was increased on day 14 and statistically identical to that in control mice on all other days analyzed. In contrast to the bone marrow cells and PBL on day 7, the frequency of PMN in the spleen and thymus was depressed. B cells (B220+) were depressed in the PBL, spleen and bone marrow and took 18–32 days to return to their normal frequency, while the frequency of B cells in the thymus was increased owing to a loss of immature T cells. The percentage of CD3+ cells in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow was significantly increased and required 10–18 days to return to normal levels, while the absolute number of CD3+ cells in the blood varied around the normal value. The ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells in all the organs studied varied only slightly owing to a similar reconstitution of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In contrast to the phenotypic recovery of the CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to respond to concanavalin-A was depressed and remained depressed, despite the phenotypic reconstitution of the T cell subsets, on the basis of both percentage and absolute cell number. These results show a selective T and B cell depression following multi-drug, split-dose chemotherapy in tissue and blood leukocyte populations and a chronic depression in T cell function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using a series of immunologically cross-reactive metastatic tumor variants, we demonstrate that serum from animals bearing pulmonary tumor colonies possesses enhancing properties in the experimental metastasis (lung colony) assay. Enhancement is produced by chronic serum administration and promotes the growth of tumor cells arrested in the lungs which would not otherwise proliferate to form grossly detectable lung nodules. Tumor-bearer serum from animals with lung colonies derived from the most highly metastatic variant examined is shown to possess enhancing properties in both BD-IX(H-1d) and BD-IV(H-1d) rat strains, while tumor-bearer serum from animals with lung colonies derived from the less metastatic parent tumor cell line possesses enhancing properties in the BD-IX rat strain only. Removal of immunoglobulin from enhancing serum by affinity column chromatography simultaneously removes the enhancing factor(s), and enhancing activity correlates with the presence of increased levels of Clq-binding immune complexes in the serum. Serum levels of immune complexes are shown to be more elevated in serum from animals bearing lung colonies derived from the most highly metastatic variant. The enhancing moieties are shown to bind to concanavalin A, but not to staphylococcal protein A, and the active fraction elutes from concanavalin A-Sepharose with α-methyl-mannoside. Consideration of immunoprecipitation studies on whole and fractionated enhancing sera, along with studies on affinity purified isotype fractions reveals that the activity resides with antibodies of IgG2b subclass.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this report the mechanism of therapeutic activity of OK-432 for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis was investigated by correlating effector-cell augmentation with therapeutic activity in rats bearing MADB-106 carcinomatosis. Tumor cells were injected i.p. and the treatment with OK-432 was initiated 5 days later with 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 KE/animal of OK-432 injected i.p. semiweekly. Significant therapeutic activity was observed at all doses examined with greater prolongation of survival noted at the higher doses of OK-432. Animals treated with 0.5 KE/animal had a prolongation of the median survival time from 14 days for saline-treated animals to 17 days for the OK-432 treated animals (P〈0.0008), while animals treated with higher doses had much longer periods of survival, some animals being tumor-free at 185 days. In the same studies, natural killer (NK) cell, lymphokine-activated killer cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and macrophage tumoricidal/cytostatic activities were measured 7 days and 14 days following tumor injection (2 days and 9 days after initiation of immunotherapy). OK-432 had immunostimulatory activity in most of the assays of immune function examined and this correlated with host survival, including augmentation of peritoneal and peripheral blood cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity on day 14, peritoneal and alveolar macrophage activity on day 7 and day 14, as well as natural killer cell activity on day 14. These results suggest that the therapeutic doses are also immunomodulatory doses for the effector cells mentioned above. We suggest, therefore, that immunological monitoring may help to optimize treatment protocols for the treatment of peritoneal and perhaps pleural effusions with OK-432.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words: Chemotherapy – CD4 – CD8 – Mitogen – Thymus – FACS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In these studies, we examined the effect of a maximum-tolerated, split-dose chemotherapy protocol of cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea carmustine on neutrophil and lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood (PBL), thymus, bone marrow and spleen. It was found that this protocol of polychemotherapy, modeled after the induction protocol used with autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer, suppressed both B and T cell populations and T cell function at times when the absolute neutrophil count had returned to normal or supernormal numbers. In the peripheral blood, 7 days following initiation of chemotherapy, there was a twofold increase in the percentage of granulocytes as compared to the level in control animals on the basis of a differential count. The polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) frequency in the bone marrow was increased on day 14 and statistically identical to that in control mice on all other days analyzed. In contrast to the bone marrow cells and PBL on day 7, the frequency of PMN in the spleen and thymus was depressed. B cells (B220+) were depressed in the PBL, spleen and bone marrow and took 18 – 32 days to return to their normal frequency, while the frequency of B cells in the thymus was increased owing to a loss of immature T cells. The percentage of CD3+ cells in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow was significantly increased and required 10 – 18 days to return to normal levels, while the absolute number of CD3+ cells in the blood varied around the normal value. The ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells in all the organs studied varied only slightly owing to a similar reconstitution of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In contrast to the phenotypic recovery of the CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to respond to concanavalin-A was depressed and remained depressed, despite the phenotypic reconstitution of the T cell subsets, on the basis of both percentage and absolute cell number. These results show a selective T and B cell depression following multi-drug, split-dose chemotherapy in tissue and blood leukocyte populations and a chronic depression in T cell function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 284 (1980), S. 622-624 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] NK cells seem to be pre-T cells that do not require thymic maturation. This could account for their presence in athymic nude mice6. The level of NK cell activity is genetically controlled7, age-dependent8 and may be augmented by numerous agents, including infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis ...
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