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  • 1
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Autoregressive model ; Dynamic response ; Exercise ; Hypercapnia ; Relative power contribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The dynamic influences of end-tidal CO2 and exercise on ventilation are compared when CO2 and exercise are imposed separately and when they are imposed simultaneously. Five human subjects are studied. The subjects performed three trials: random work rate forcing, random CO2 inhalation and their simultaneous loading. The work rate was varied between 20 and 80 W as a pseudorandom binary sequence. The concentration of inspired CO2 was varied randomly between 0 and 7 per cent, adjusted so that it produced approximately the same amount of ventilatory fluctuations as the random work load. The relative contribution of each variable was analysed using multivariate autoregressive analysis at frequencies ranging from 0·1 to 1 cycle min−1. The results show that the dynamics of the response to CO2 inhalation, exercise and their combination are nonlinear and that the combination of CO2 inhalation and exercise magnifies the nonlinear behaviour. Ventilation is largely unaffected by either work rate or end-tidal CO2 at 1 cycle min−1. During simultaneous CO2 and work rate forcing, ventilation tends to follow the change in the end-tidal CO2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 5 (1971), S. 389-396 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectra of various N-aryliminopyridinium and isoquinolinium betaines have been recorded. The most prominent fragmentation process of these compounds is N-N bond cleavage with the charge retention on both the pyridine and aryl fragments. An ortho-effect has been observed in the mass spectrum of N-o-nitrophenyliminopyridinium betaine (IXa).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: Key words Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) ; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ; Advance directives ; Euthanasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate physicians' perspectives on do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders at Tokai University hospital, where a euthanasia-like accident occurred several years ago. Methods. A "questionnaire on DNR orders" survey was administered to physicians and the anonymous answers were collected 2 weeks later. Results. Answers were received from 150 of the 400 physicians (37.5%) (surveyed from every department), and revealed that more than 90% of the physicians felt that DNRs were occasionally necessary and that more than 60% of the physicians stated that they had performed DNR. Only 14% of the physicians answered that the patient's consent would be indispensable, and 78% stated that the patient's family and the physician could decide on DNR without the patient's consent being given. Only half of the physicians stated that they regarded it as necessary that DNR order sheets be established hospital policy, and more than 20% of the physicians stated that such an order sheet would not be necessary. Conclusion. There is, in fact, a tacit understanding regarding DNR between physicians and patients/families in medical practice in Japan. However, DNR orders constitute definite medical decisions and procedures. Therefore, such orders should be clearly stated in a standardized format, although such procedures do not seem to be acceptable in the context of the Japanese traditional value system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background: Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that excess stimulation of non-NMDA receptors can result in massive neuronal death in the retina. In particular, murine amacrine neurons have been known to show marked susceptibility to the toxic effects of kainate. Purpose: This study was designed to examine and characterize the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor vs non-NMDA receptor in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the retina.  Methods: Primary cultures obtained from fetal rat retina (gestation day 16–19) were used for the experiment. The neurotoxicity was assessed quantitatively using the trypan blue exclusion method. Electrophysiological studies using patch-clamp techniques were performed to record whole-cell currents evoked by these excitatory amino acids.  Results: Removal of extracellular Ca2+ from the medium or application of MK-801 reduced the extent of cell death induced by the brief exposure to glutamate, NMDA, and kainate. By contrast, cell death induced by a 60-min exposure to kainate was not affected by MK-801. The electrophysiological study demonstrated that MK-801 abolished the whole-cell currents evoked by NMDA but had no effect on those induced by kainate or AMPA. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to kainate induces cell death by way of activating NMDA receptors in cultured fetal retinal neurons and that NMDA receptors are the predominant route of fetal retinal neurotoxicity induced by brief glutamate exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss ; Interferon-α treatment ; Anti-viral activity ; 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase ; Cytokine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have employed alpha-interferon (IFN-α), an anti-viral agent, in the treatment of severe idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). Forty-two patients were studied and had an average hearing ability of ≥ 70 dB before treatment. We also examined 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (2,5A-S) activity, one of the parameters indicating anti-viral activity of IFN, to investigate the relationship between the suppression of viral proliferation and prognosis and explain the pathogenesis of ISSHL. Complete recovery was found in 27 patients (64.3%) after IFN therapy. Increased 2,5A-S activity was observed on the 3rd day of IFN therapy in 24 of the 27 patients who completely recovered. No severe adverse events were reported after IFN therapy. Findings suggest that IFN therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of ISSHL and calls for further investigation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Keywords: Optically-pumped FIR lasers ; Stark effect ; Level crossing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In conjunction with the Stark field induced power enhancement in optically pumped far infrared lasers, absorption transitions in a degenerate two level system under the influence of an weak static Stark field have been analyed. A third order theory to the density matrix formalism leads to zero field level crossing signals for absorption in rate equation approximation and in Doppler limit. For fast relaxation among Zeeman sublevels, the zero field level crossing signal arises from population effect. Optoacoustic measurements have been carried out on the ν5,qQ(16,8) absorption line of CH3OH which produces the familiar 119-μm laser with the CO2 9P(36) pump line. The optoacoustic absorption signals observed are well reproduced by the theoretical expression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectral fragmentation of N-arylsulphonyliminopyridinium betaines has been rationalized using high resolution mass spectrometry as well as deuterium labelling. The most characteristic features are a very facile N—S bond cleavage and skeletal rearrangements accompanied by the expulsion of SO2 from the molecular ion and the [M—1] ion to the corresponding ionized N-aryliminopyridinium betaines and azacarbazoles, respectively. The presence of methyl substituents at the α-position of the pyridine ring has a significant effect on the mode of the fragmentation.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 5 (1971), S. 61-71 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectral fragmentation behaviour of N-acyliminopyridinium and isoquinolinium betaines has been investigated. Major fragmentations of the pyridinium betaines can be rationalized in terms of charge localization on the pyridinium nitrogen. The most prominent process is α-cleavage followed by loss of NCO to furnish a pyridine ion. The electron-impact induced fragmentation of N-benzoyliminopyridinium betaine (I) was compared with that of thermolysis. The completely analogous behaviour has been observed in the corresponding isoquinolinium betaines.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectra of N-iminopyridinium betaines, which have been generated within the ion source by pyrolysis of the corresponding hydrochlorides, have been compared with those of pyridine N-oxides.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The monoclonal antibody against estramustine-binding protein (EMBP) was produced by immunizing a mouse with EMBP antigen purified from rat ventral prostate. On western blotting analysis this antibody recognized the EMBP C1 component, and in an absorption test it recognized the EMBP antigen. Immunohistochemically, this antibody revealed positive staining for the ventral and dorsolateral prostate. In the epithelium of the ventral prostate, intense immunostaining was observed in the intraluminal secretory product; however, in the epithelium of the dorsolateral prostate, the staining was intense in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. These findings suggested differences of EMBP localization in the ventral and the dorsolateral prostate. Since the intensity of immunostaining for EMBP was decreased in the prostate of castrated rats, we considered that this antibody reflected the androgen dependency of EMBP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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