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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is characterized by progressive replacement of RV myocardium with fibro-adipose tissue thought to be responsible for the presence of late potentials (LP) detected by SAECG. The general consensus on the role of SAECG in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with ARVD is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to better define the role of SAECG in ARVD. Methods: An extensive review of literature was done to specifically describe the prevalence of LP in ARVD and its determinants, explore the various options available to improve the diagnostic ability of SAECG, and provide recommendations for proper utilization of this technique. Results: LPs are frequent in ARVD (47–100%), and more prevalent in severe disease and in patients with documented spontaneous VT. SAECG is a useful test in following the characteristic evolutivity of the disease. 4–16% of normal family members of patients with ARVD also have abnormal SAECG results. Detection of LP in ARVD can be improved by employing a high-pass filter of 25 Hz and specifically looking for changes in the Z leads. Conclusions: SAECG testing should be considered a standard part of the evaluation of patients with known or suspected ARVD. Further research is needed to confirm the value of SAECG testing in predicting arrhythmia risk and assessing the rate of disease progression, as well as to determine if greater prevalence of SAECG abnormalities in family members of patients with ARVD represents early detection of ARVD. The ongoing multidisciplinary study of right ventricular dysplasia will hopefully answer some of these questions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Catheter ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) for prevention of recurrent atrial fibrillation requires precise anatomic information. We describe the characteristics of a new anatomic variant of PV anatomy using magnetic resonance angiography. Methods and Results: A 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system with a body coil or a torso phased-array coil was used before and after gadolinium injection. Magnetic resonance angiograms were acquired with a breath-hold three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-echo imaging sequence in the coronal plane. Three-dimensional reconstruction with maximum intensity projections and multiplanar reformations was performed. A newly described variant PV ascending from the roof of the left atrium was found in 3 of 91 subjects. The mean ostial diameter of the roof PV was 7 ± 2 mm, the mean distance from the ostium to the first branching point was 22 ± 8.5 mm, and the mean distance to the right superior PV was 3.3 ± 0.6 mm. Conclusion: We refer to the newly described variant of PV anatomy as the “right top pulmonary vein.” It is important to be aware of this anatomic pattern to avoid inadvertent catheter intubation, which can result in misleading mapping results and PV stenosis. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 538-543, May 2004)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Treatment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is mostly based on the prevention of sudden cardiac death that results from arrhythmias. A clinical history suggestive of ARVD requires careful evaluation including electrophysiological study. The potential ability to identify those patients who will have inducible VT with electrophysiological study will enable better risk stratification and selection of vulnerable patients for electrophysiologically guided therapy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the predictive ability of signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) to predict inducibility of VT in patients with ARVD. The patient population consisted of 31 ARVD patients diagnosed with McKenna's criteria who underwent electrophysiological study. Electrophysiological study was considered positive if sustained monomorphic VT was induced. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy of various SAECG criteria for inducibility of sustained monomorphic VT were also calculated. Twenty-one patients had inducible VT. The filtered QRS duration (fQRS), duration of signal 〈40 uV (LAS40), and root mean square voltage in the last 40 ms of QRS duration (RMS40) in ARVD patients induced versus noninduced were 122 ± 21 and 103 ± 8 ms (P = 0.007), 45 ± 20 and 28 ± 14 ms (P = 0.02), 19 ± 19 and 32 ± 22 uV (0.03), respectively. The ejection fractions were comparable in both groups. fQRS duration ≥110 ms had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 90%, and a total predictive accuracy of 90% in predicting inducibility of VT in these patients. Filtered QRS duration on SAECG is predictive of electrophysiological study outcome in ARVD. Further studies will be needed to determine if SAECG results can predict the development of ventricular arrhythmias during follow-up. (PACE 2003; 26:1955–1960)
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) has major implications for the management of patients and their first-degree relatives. Diagnosis is based on a set of criteria proposed by the International Task Force for Cardiomyopathies. We report our experience in providing a re-evaluation for patients who previously have been diagnosed with ARVD/C. Methods and Results: We studied 89 patients who requested a re-evaluation for diagnosis of ARVD/C at our center. Each of these patients had been diagnosed with ARVD/C at their initial evaluation. Each patient was re-evaluated with clinical history, physical examination, and noninvasive testing at our center. Invasive testing, which included electrophysiologic testing, right ventricular angiography, and endomyocardial biopsy, was performed when clinically indicated. Sixty (92%) of the 65 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an outside institution were reported to have an abnormal MRI consistent with ARVD/C. Among these patients, the only abnormality identified was the qualitative finding of intramyocardial fat/wall thinning in 46 patients. On re-evaluation, these qualitative findings were not confirmed. None of these 46 patients ultimately were diagnosed with ARVD/C. Among the entire patient group, only 24 (27%) of the 89 patients met the Task Force criteria for ARVD/C. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the high frequency of “misdiagnosis” of ARVD/C is due to over-reliance on the presence of intramyocardial fat/wall thinning on MRI, incomplete diagnostic testing, and lack of awareness of the Task Force criteria. Diagnosis of ARVD/C cannot rely solely upon qualitative features on MRI. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 300-306, March 2004)
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Anatomically guided left atrial ablation is used increasingly for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Three-dimensional mapping systems used for pulmonary veins (PV) encircling ablation procedures anticipate a stable size and position of the PV orifice. The aim of the current study was therefore to analyze changes of PV orifice size and location throughout the cardiac cycle using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy volunteers were studied using a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. MR angiograms were acquired with a breath-hold three-dimensional fast-spoiled gradient-echo imaging (3D FSPGR) sequence in the coronal plane before and after gadolinium injection. Maximum intensity projections and multiplanar reformations were performed to reconstruct images of the PV. Bright blood cine imaging in the axial view was acquired by a steady-state free precession pulse sequence. Twenty bright blood images were obtained per cardiac cycle. The axial (anterior-posterior) PV orifice diameter was measured in all 20 images. For analysis of PV movement the location of the orifice posterior edge was plotted on scale paper.PV orifice size depends on the stage of the cardiac cycle with the largest diameter in late atrial diastole and a mean decrease of 32.5% during atrial systole. Location changes of the PV orifice are in the range of up to 7.2 mm and larger in the coronal (lateral-medial) than in the sagittal (anterior-posterior) direction. Conclusion: PV orifice size and location is not as stable as anticipated by three-dimensional mapping systems used for PV encircling left atrial ablation procedures. RF application close to the presumed orifice location should therefore be avoided to minimize the risk of PV stenosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients meeting Task Force criteria for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) have not been systematically described. We report qualitative and quantitative MRI findings in ARVD using state-of-the-art MRI. Methods and Results: MRI was performed on 12 patients with ARVD who were prospectively diagnosed using the Task Force criteria. The imaging protocol included breath-hold double inversion recovery spin-echo and gradient-echo images. Ventricular volumes and dimensions were compared to 10 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. High intramyocardial T1 signal similar to fat signal was observed in 9 (75%) of the 12 patients and in none of the controls. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was seen in 5 (42%) patients, trabecular disarray in 7 (59%), and wall thinning in 3 (25%). Both the RV end-diastolic diameter and the outflow tract area were significantly higher in ARVD patients compared to controls (51.2 vs 43.2 mm, P 〈 0.01 ; and 14.5 vs 9.3 cm2, P 〈 0.01 , respectively). ARVD patients had a higher RV end-diastolic volume index and lower RV ejection fraction compared with controls (127.4 vs 87.5, P 〈 0.01 ; and 41.6% vs 57%, P 〈 0.01 , respectively). Conclusion: High intramyocardial T1 signal indicative of fat is seen in a high percentage (75%) of patients who meet the Task Force criteria for ARVD. Trabecular disarray is seen more frequently than wall thinning and aneurysms. RV dimensions and volumes differ significantly in ARVD compared to controls, indicating a role for quantitative evaluation in the diagnosis of ARVD. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 476-482, May 2003)
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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