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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 60 (1992), S. 2164-2166 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Etching of copper films by chlorine is induced by a scanning cw laser that locally heats the film. In experimental regimes with relatively high laser power, low chlorine pressure and fast scan speed, laser etching of copper is well characterized by a kinetic model based on the calculated temperature rise. In other regimes, a thick nondesorbed copper chloride layer forms on top of the etched copper region that significantly decreases the rate of copper chlorination. Notably, in certain regimes the copper etch depth is shown to increase with increasing scan rate, which is a very unusual dependence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7691
    Keywords: Euler equations ; Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) schemes ; positivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents the positivity analysis of the explicit and implicit Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) schemes for the compressible Euler equations. The theoretical proof is closely based on the decomposition of fluid variables and their corresponding fluxes into the pseudo-particles representation. For both explicit and implicit 1st-order LxF schemes, from any initial realizable state the density and the internal energy could keep non-negative values under the CFL condition with Courant number 1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: lipids ; phospholipids ; hepatocarcinoma ; N-nitrosodiethylamine ; rat liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Alterations in lipid content and composition in the N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinoma were investigated. Rats were administrated with N-nitrosodiethylamine in the drinking water for 12 weeks followed by normal tap water for another 6 weeks. The cholesterol content in the liver was increased shortly after the administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine and remained elevated after the removal of the nitrosoamine from the water. The phosphatidylethanolamine level was elevated during N-nitrosodiethylamine administration with a concomitant reduction in phosphatidylcholine level. Lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin levels were increased during the last four weeks of the study. The level of phosphatidylinositol was substantially reduced after eight weeks of N-nitrosodiethylamine treatment, and remained low during the post-treatment period. We postulate that changes in lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin may be a compensatory mechanism for maintaining the asymmetrical distribution of choline-containing lipids in the outer leaflet of the membrane. The elevated level of cholesterol may be a useful indicator for the early detection of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 38 (2006), S. 13-15 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] How often do genetic or environmental variants produce unequal effects in different populations? This is a fundamental yet unsettled question in the ongoing quest to elucidate and eliminate 'racial' and ethnic health disparities. Such variants not only complicate the dissection of complex disease ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Identification of genetic variants that contribute to risk of hypertension is challenging. As a complement to linkage and candidate gene association studies, we carried out admixture mapping using genome-scan microsatellite markers among the African American participants in the US National Heart, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 71 (1992), S. 3492-3505 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polarization Raman microprobe spectroscopy is used to study crystalline silicon heated to the melting point by a tightly focused cw laser beam, which is either fixed or scanned across the surface. By examining optical phonons in solid silicon, the real-time Raman spectrum monitors the progress of silicon flow during melting and the trench depth during melt-assisted etching. Raman peaks lie between 482 cm−1, which is the Raman shift for silicon uniformly heated to the melting point (1690 K), and ∼510 cm−1, which is the Raman shift for c-Si heated just to the melting point and probed by the same beam. During laser melting with a static laser, the Raman spectrum of scattered light with z(x,y)z¯ polarization has two peaks, while the z(x,x)z¯ spectrum has one peak. This shows that at the beginning of melting in vacuum by a static laser there is a central region with solid silicon floating in the melt, which is surrounded by hot solid material. Because of the flow of the molten semiconductor, the temperature profile changes, causing the Raman spectrum to change rapidly. Laser melting of c-Ge and thin films of silicon in vacuum is also studied, as is the melting of c-Si by a static laser in the presence of an inert buffer gas. The presence of an inert buffer is shown to affect the temperature profile very strongly during melting and also during laser heating at lower laser powers when no melting occurs. During scanned laser melting and etching, the Raman spectrum has a single peak using either polarization configuration. Raman analysis during melting of silicon by a scanning laser shows that the average temperature in the probed region is much higher when there is a gas-phase argon buffer present (and no etching) than when there is an etching mixture of argon/chlorine gas (and etching). Along with these real-time Raman measurements, the reflection of the incident laser was monitored, and post-process Raman analysis and profilometry were also performed to characterize surface changes due to melting and etching.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Congenital cataracts facial dysmorphism neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome (OMIM 604168) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder that occurs in an endogamous group of Vlax Roma (Gypsies; refs. 1–3). We previously localized the gene associated with CCFDN to 18qter, where a conserved ...
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 964: Green, Hydrothermal Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Nanodots from Gardenia, Enabling the Detection of Metronidazole in Pharmaceuticals and Rabbit Plasma Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040964 Authors: Xiupei Yang Mingxian Liu Yanru Yin Fenglin Tang Hua Xu Xiangjun Liao Strong fluorescent carbon nanodots (FCNs) were synthesized with a green approach using gardenia as a carbon source through a one-step hydrothermal method. FCNs were characterized by their UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We further explored the use of as-synthesized FCNs as an effective probe for the detection of metronidazole (MNZ), which is based on MNZ-induced fluorescence quenching of FCNs. The proposed method displayed a wide linear range from 0.8 to 225.0 µM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992 and a limit of detection as low as 279 nM. It was successfully applied to the determination of MNZ in commercial tablets and rabbit plasma with excellent sensitivity and selectivity, which indicates its potential applications in clinical analysis and biologically related studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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