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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; Nicotine ; Central cholinergic stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the first study to examine direct nicotinic augmentation of central cholinergic functioning in Alzheimer's disease, six patients were studied in an intensive pilot study with three doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/kg/min) of intravenous nicotine and placebo. Cognitive tests showed a decrease in intrusion errors on the middle (0.25 μg) dose. Prominent behavioral effects were noted, with significant dose-related increases in anxiety and depressive affect. These results suggest that central nicotinic cholinergic stimulation deserves further investigation as a treatment in Alzheimer's disease and that nicotine may also be a useful investigative tool in other populations as a probe of central cholinergic function, especially in regard to the modulation of affect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; Cognition ; Dementia ; Deprenyl ; Monoamines ; Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Monoamine neurotransmitter systems, along with cholinergic systems, are known to play important roles in cognition, and are disrupted in at least some patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This suggests that monoamine-enhancing drugs might ameliorate cognitive symptoms in certain patients with DAT. l-Deprenyl is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor which may selectively inhibit MAO-B at low doses, while at high doses it nonselectively inhibits MAO-A as well as MAO-B. We studied its effects on several types of cognitive function in 17 patients with DAT. Two doses of l-deprenyl (10 mg/day and 40 mg/day) and placebo were compared in a double-blind, serial treatment design. Episodic learning and memory, knowledge memory, attention, recognition, and performance on a continuous performance task were assessed at baseline and under these drug and placebo conditions. Statistically significant improvement was noted in performance on an episodic memory and learning task requiring complex information processing and sustained conscious effort during treatment with l-deprenyl 10 mg/day. Knowledge memory, intrusions, and other cognitive functions relevant to DAT were not altered by l-deprenyl at either dose.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: MAO inhibition ; Dementia of the Alzheimer type ; Cerebrospinal fluid ; Monoamine metabolites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with selective effects on MAO type-B at low doses, was administered to 13 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), a disorder reported to be associated with increased brain MAO-B activity. Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained for measurement of three monoamine metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Deprenyl treatment (10 mg/day) for 3–4 weeks was associated with small but statistically significant reductions in HVA (21%) and 5-HIAA (15%) compared to baseline values. Subsequent administration of deprenyl at the higher dose of 40 mg/day for 3–4 more weeks led to greater reductions in HVA (40%) and MHPG (43%) than 5-HIAA (20%). These dose-dependent reductions are consistent with in vitro biochemical and anatomical data from primate brain suggesting that at low doses of deprenyl, MAO-B inhibition might be expected to selectively affect dopamine and serotonin-containing neurons, while at higher doses (which lead to MAO-A as well as MAO-B inhibition), noradrenergic neurons may become relatively more affected by the drug.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Scopolamine ; Aging ; Cognition ; Memory
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intravenously to 23 normal subjects (40–89 years) in doses of 0.1 mg, 0.25 mg, and 0.5 mg, in a doubleblind, placebo-controlled, random-order fashion. The effects of scopolamine, as compared to placebo, were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery, as well as behavioral and physiological measures. Scopolamine produced the expected dose-dependent impairments in most of the cognitive functions assessed. Behavioral and physiological measures were also affected, but only minimally. More importantly, there was a significant overall correlation between age and scopolamine-impaired performances on psychomotor speed, short-term recall, visual tracking speed, visuo-motor coordination, and sequencing ability. There was, however, some inter-individual variability in this phenomenon. The results provide further evidence that cholinergically mediated cognitive functions show an increased sensitivity to scopolamine with age, albeit with heterogeneity that bears further investigation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    Keywords: Adrenocorticotropic hormone ; cortisol ; depression ; dexamethasone
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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