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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 28 (1972), S. 270-278 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Poisoning ; Ammonium Compounds ; Cobalt8 ; Copper ; Nickel ; Vergiftung ; Ammonium-Verbindungen ; Kobalt ; Kupfer ; Nickel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wird ein tödlicher Vergiftungsfall durch eine kommerzielle Mischung von Substraten der Pflanzenwuchsmittel berichtet. Das Präparat enthielt viele anorganische Verbindungen, wie Salze der Schwermetalle, Amoniumverbindungen und Nitrate. Das Vergiftungsbild bestand aus schweren Nierenversagen, Leberinsuffizienz und Ateminsuffizienz. Der Patient wurde mit Hämodialysen und künstlicher Beatmung behandelt. Trotz Beatmung mit 100% igem Sauerstoff blieb er hypoxämisch während der 2 letzten Tage und nach Intensivbehandlung von 7 Tagen starb er durch Asystolie. Die Resultate der toxikologischen Experimente mit Kaninchen zeigten, daß die Toxicität des Präparates auf der kombinierten Wirkung von NH+, Cu++, Ni++ und Co++ beruhen kann.
    Notes: Abstract A fatal case of a poisoning caused by a commercial mixture of plantnutrient substrates is described. The preparation contained numerous inorganic compounds, such as heavy metal salts, ammonium compounds and nitrates. The patient developed severe renal, hepatic and respiratory failure. He was treated with five haemodialyses and finally his ventilation was controlled mechanically via a tracheostomy. In spite of ventilation with 100 % oxygen he remained hypoxaemic during the last two days and after intensive therapy for seven days he developed a fatal cardiac asystole. The results of toxicological experiments performed on rabbits show that the toxicity of the preparation may be due to the combined action of NH+ with Cu++, Ni++ and Co++. The histopathological findings made in the patient and the animals are compared.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Lung transplantation ; Chronic allograft rejection ; Obliterative bronchiolitis ; Cyclosporine A
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have recently developed a heterotopic large-animal model for research into obliterative lesions in small airways caused by allograft rejection. In this model, the small airways of subcutaneously implanted allografts gradually obliterate, whereas autografts remain patent. Twenty lung fragments and 20 segments of bronchi were implanted in domestic pigs weighing 20 kg from non-related donors. The histology of five animals receiving daily cyclosporine A (CsA) (10 mg/kg), azathioprine (2 mg/kg) and methylprednisolone (20 mg), Group C, was compared with that of six animals without immunosuppression, Group A. Four animals received monotherapy with CsA (10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (3 mg/kg). The histological findings were graded from 0 to 3 on the basis of implants harvested repeatedly over 3 months. Epithelial destruction and bronchial obliteration was rapid and permanent in all the allografts. Inflammation and fibrosis of the bronchial wall was less prominent in Group C than in Group A and the onset of fibrosis was delayed. Cartilage degeneration and pericartilagineous inflammation were significantly less severe in Group C (P 〈 0.05). Monotherapy was less potent than triple therapy. This large-animal model is useful for studying the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on obliterative airway disease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Triple drug therapy, kidney transplantation ; Immunosuppression, kidney transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The long-term effects of different immunosuppressive drugs and regimens on renal allograft histology are virtually unknown. Therefore, in order to investigate the long-term effects of triple drug treatment versus different combinations of two immunosuppressive drugs on allograft histology, a prospective, randomized trial was performed. One group received triple therapy consisting of low-dose cyclosporin (CyA), azathioprine (Aza), and methylprednisolone (MP), and three groups received combinations of two drugs, i.e., Aza plus CyA, Aza plus MP, and CyA plus MP. At 2 years, there were no significant differences with regard to graft (80%) or patient (87%) survival, or to graft function between the four groups. After 2 years, a protocol core biopsy was taken of all 102 patients having a functioning graft. Of these patients, 61 (60%) were still following the original, randomized treatment protocol; in the remaining cases, changes had occurred in the original protocol and so these cases were considered drop-outs in this study. Histological specimens were examined blindly by two independent observers. Most of the 34 histological variables examined showed no changes. Diffuse fibrosis was most frequent in the CyA plus MP group (70%) and significantly more severe than in the triple therapy group. Mesangial matrix increase in glomeruli was significantly less common in the triple therapy group (8%) than in any one of the double drug combination groups (47%). Two other changes in glomeruli — Bowman capsular thickening and global glomerular sclerosis — were also less frequent in the triple therapy group. Vascular changes other than intimal proliferation (39%) and arteriosclerosis (24%) were uncommon in all groups and least frequent in the triple therapy group. Isometric vacuolation in proximal tubules was found in every group using CyA. It was least prominent in the triple therapy group and most prominent in the CyA plus MP group; it was not seen in the Aza plus MP group. Other specific findings for the groups treated with Cya could not be identified. To summarize, the changes shown were mild and rather similarly distributed in the four treatment groups. Histopathological alterations comparable with chronic rejection, i.e., persistent interstitial inflammation with pyroninophilic cells, vascular intimal proliferation, and arteriosclerosis, were seen in all groups, but these changes were least prominent in the group receiving triple therapy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Twenty cadaveric kidney allograft recipients were prerandomized into two groups. Ten patients (control group) were treated postoperatively with azathioprine (AZA) plus methylprednisolone (MP); the other ten received cyclosporin A (CyA) as the only immunosuppressive agent. Both groups received MP during rejection. One patient was excluded from the CyA group because of an early postoperative cardiac infarction and death. All transplants were monitored by alternate-day fine-needle aspiration biopsy and transplant aspiration cytology. Some patients treated with CyA had a significant initial decrease in urine output, reaching control values approximately 1 week postoperatively. The mechanism behind this deteriorated renal function is not clear, but it seemed to have been caused by injuries to the kidney tubular component, since a distinct monocytic-lymphocytic inflammation and severe cytological changes resembling pronounced acute tubular necrosis were observed concomitantly in transplant aspiration cytology. The CyA-treated patients had normal levels of blood leucocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes but displayed a strong early blood eosinophilia that was absent in the control subjects. During the first 30 days after transplantation 15 in situ episodes of inflammation were recorded in the nine transplants treated with CyA, whereas only 6 episodes were found in the 10 transplants receiving AZA + MP (P〈0.01). The first inflammatory episode in the CyA-treated transplants peaked between days 5 and 8 after transplantation and was followed by another distinct inflammatory episode between days 23 and 26. In the AZA- plus MP-treated transplants, only one inflammation episode was observed, with a peak on day 14 postoperatively. The inflammatory cell types most prominently present in the CyA-treated transplants were lymphocytes, B plasmablasts and monocytes. The early inflammatory episodes in the CyA-treated transplants may have been related to the fact that during the initial intramuscular administration, therapeutic CyA concentrations in patient serum were not achieved until the fourth postoperative day during peroral administration. The onset of transplant function had no impact on the in situ inflammatory response of rejection in the CyA-treated transplants or on the concentration of CyA in patient serum. This indicates that CyA may also be used in initially non functioning transplants. Confirming our earlier results, we were unable to demonstrate the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the healthy grafts treated with AZA plus MP. However, in healthy allografts treated with CyA, both classes of MHC antigens were nearly invariably demonstrable on the graft endothelial cell surface. Approximately 60% allograft survivals were recorded in both groups at 6 months, and all patients with functioning grafts were able to work.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The condition called “lactation optic neuritis” has been previously considered a clinical entity of its own. Four women, who developed optic neuritis within 1–12 months while breast-feeding their infants, were investigated ophthalmologically and neurologically in order, to find specific clinical features for this condition. The course of the disorder was similar to classic optic neuritis without lactation. The clinical history and laboratory findings in three of the four patients suggested a demyelinating disorder. It is possible that the decreased immunosuppressive activity just after pregnancy induces the manifestation of an underlying demyelinating disease. The existence of “lactation optic neuritis,” however, is questioned as a separate entity of its own. Lactation together with decreased immunosuppression may merely act as a provocateur in the onset of optic neuritis, which in many cases is the first clinical manifestation of incipient multiple sclerosis.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron 32 (1976), S. 593-595 
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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