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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The genetic polymorphism ofToxoplasma gondii was evaluated for 14 strains by isoenzyme and DNA analysis. The 14 strains belonged to 5 different zymodemes defined by the, variable patterns of 6 enzyme systems. A restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis was carried out with two endonucleases (Sal I andPst I) and two repetitive probes (TGR1E and TGR6). This kind of repetitive probe allowed an individual identification of strain, with 13 schizodemes being observed among 14 strains. Only two strains were found to be totally identical when DNA and isoenzyme characters were considered. The numerical taxonomy methods applied to the results obtained for both types of characters allowed determination of linkage groups. Strain clustering obtained by numerical analysis of DNA characters alone is similar to the clustering obtained by analysis of isoenzyme and DNA characters together. A relationship was observed between the defined groups and virulence in Swiss mice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Catecholamines ; Neuropeptides ; Adrenal medulla ; Clonidine ; Dihydralazine ; Splanchnic nerve stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Various neuropeptides are costored together with catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The concurrent release (evaluated by adrenal vein plasma levels) of these neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (NPY), met-enkephaline (ME)] and catecholamines [adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA)] from the adrenal gland was examined in chloralose-anesthetized dogs after intravenous administration of clonidine (10 μg/kg) and dihydralazine (1 mg/kg). These results were compared to those obtained after the stimulation of the right splanchnic nerve at 1, 5 and 10 Hz frequencies. The increment in the release of catecholamines and neuropeptides was evaluated for dihydralazine and splanchnic nerve stimulation. Dihydralazine (at its maximal effect) induced a significant preferential increase in catecholamines (expressed as mean (SEM): NA: 17.3 (5.4) fold, A: 13.1 (2.6) fold) and ME (16.0 (7.1) fold) versus basal values. However, the significant increase in NPY-LI was only 2.0 (0.4) times the baseline. Splanchnic nerve stimulation induced a frequency-dependent increase in catecholamines and neuropeptides. When the stimulation frequency was increased from 1 Hz to 5 Hz, NA and A levels increased 17.9 (4.3) and 14.0 (2.2) fold, respectively and ME levels 14.1 (3.0) fold. By contrast, NPY-LI was increased only 2.3 (0.3) fold under the same conditions. Increasing the stimulation frequency from 5 Hz to 10 Hz resulted in similar elevations of NA, ME, and NPY-LI adrenal plasma levels (about 4 times) whereas A only increased twice. Clonidine decreased catecholamine and ME adrenal plasma levels (the maximal percent decrease when compared with control values was about 75%) whereas NPY adrenal plasma levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, the present data indicate that (i) both adrenal ME and NA always exhibit corelease in a parallel fashion which is not the case for NPY art; (ii) different populations of chromaffin vesicles could be preferentially mobilized according to different physiological and pharmacological patterns.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Catecholamines ; NPY ; Conscious dogs ; Sinoaortic denervation ; Yohimbine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The release of catecholamines and their co-neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated in conscious dogs with neurogenic arterial hypertension elicited by sinoaortic denervation. One month after denervation, an elevation of catecholamine levels (measured by HPLC) without elevation of NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) levels in plasma (evaluated by RIA) has been found. This dissociation could be explained by 1) a transient release of NPY during the first weeks after surgery, 2) a depletion of neuronal NPY due to the permanent sympathetic stimulation, or 3) an insufficient increase in sympathetic tone. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the time courses of catecholamine and NPY-LI levels in arterial plasma during the first five weeks after sinoaortic denervation and responses to yohimbine (an alpha2 antagonist which enhances transmitter release). Resting NPY-LI levels in plasma remained normal during the first five weeks after sinoaortic denervation. In normal dogs, a high dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg i. v.) elevated both catecholamine (6-fold) and NPY-LI levels (1.5-fold), whereas a lower dose (0.05 mg/kg i. v.) induced a two fold elevation of catecholamine levels without changing NPY-LI concentrations. In sinoaortically denervated dogs, yohimbine elicited elevation of both catecholamines and NPY-LI whatever the dose used. Thus, neurogenic arterial hypertension in dogs seems to involve catecholamines but not NPY. Moreover, the present work suggests that a high level of sympathetic stimulation is required for a co-release of catecholamines and NPY.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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