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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: propranolol ; hyperthyroidism ; stereoisomers ; radioimmunoassay ; beta-receptor sensitivity ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The disposition of propranolol stereoisomers after administration of a single oral dose of the racemic drug was investigated in seven hyperthyroid patients before and after antithyroid drug therapy. The possibility of hypersensitivity to propranolol in the patients was evaluated by constructing plasma propranolol concentration — beta-blocking effect curves. There was no statistically significant difference in elimination half-life (t1/2) between (±)- and (−)-propranolol before and after antithyroid drug therapy. However, the plasma clearance ( $$\dot V_p $$ ) of (−)-propranolol was smaller than that of (±)-propranolol, and the difference was statistically significant after antithyroid drug therapy. Decreased $$\dot V_p $$ was observed in 3 aged hyperthyroid patients compared to the value after antithyroid drug therapy. $$\dot V_p $$ decreased or did not change in young patients after therapy. No significant difference was observed in the relationship between the tilt-induced pulse rate response and plasma propranolol concentration when treated patients became euthyroid compared to their response in the hyperthyroid state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: adrenergic beta-receptors ; propranolol ; beta-blockade ; pharmacokinetics ; leukocyte beta-receptors ; leukocytes ; exercise tachycardia ; 4—OH-propranolol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The chronotropic response to a single oral dose of propranolol in 23 healthy subjects has been related to the plasma propranolol concentration and the density of β-adrenoceptors on peripheral polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The percentage reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia was significantly correlated with the log plasma propranolol concentration within subjects but not between subjects. Taking the concentration of the active metabolite 4-hydroxypropranolol into account did not improve the interindividual correlation. The reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia was significantly correlated with the maximum binding density of (125I)-hydroxybenzylpindolol on polymorphonuclear leucocyte membrane fragments measured before medication. A response index (% reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia/plasma propranolol concentration) was correlated with the maximum binding density of (125I)-hydroxybenzylpindolol (predrug) at 2 h (rs=0.72), 4 h (rs=0.84) and 6 h (rs=0.73) after dosing. The data suggest that interindividual variation in the response to propranolol after a single oral dose is determined by interindividual differences both in plasma propranolol and adrenoceptor density.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Timolol ; propranolol ; disposition ; plasma level ; beta-blockade assessment ; duration-action course of drug
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetic disposition and beta-adrenergic blocking action in relation to plasma level of a single oral dose of either timolol or propranolol has been compared in healthy male volunteers. The disposition profiles clearly disclosed different properties of the two drugs, although their half-lives were similar. The available fraction of timolol in the systemic circulation was estimated to be approximately 60% of the dose, and 17.4% was exereted unchanged in urine. The logarithm of plasma concentration showed a significant correlation with the beta-blocking activity assessed by an exercise test. The mean potency ratios of timolol to propranolol as an antagonist of chronotropic effects on exercise tachycardia were 11 to 17 and 3.6 to 5.5 in dose- and concentration-effect relationships, respectively. The absolute reduction of exercise heart rate gave the best coefficient of all measures of beta-blockade. When drug action was measured as beta-blockade assessed by a given response to exercise tachycardia, the effect declined linearly with time, even though plasma levels fell exponentially. This results suggest that the pharmacokinetic t1/2 is much shorter than the pharmacological t1/2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: befunolol ; propranolol ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamic effects ; beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Repeated doses of a new β-adrenoceptor blocking agent, befunolol, were administered orally to adult male volunteers for a cross-over comparison with propranolol. The β-adrenoceptor blocking activity of befunolol was greater than that of propranolol when assessed by the percentage reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia. The elimination half-life of drug was significantly prolonged on repeated administration of propranolol, but not of befunolol. The percentage reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia was highly correlated with the log plasma level of each drug. Both drugs produced a significant reduction in pre-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significant attenuation of exercise-induced rise in systolic blood pressure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Active oxygen ; rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte ; thiol protease inhibitor ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The specific thiol protease inhibitor, NCO-700, which is related to L-trans-epoxysuccinylpeptides, inhibited oxidant production by chemoattractant-stimulated rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes. NCO-700 could also scavenge active oxygen generated from sodium hypochlorite-hydrogen peroxide and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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