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  • 1
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; MOUSE ; MUTATIONS ; C-KIT ; ROLES ; proto-oncogene ; TUMOR-BEARING MICE ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM ; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTOR ; W-LOCUS
    Abstract: Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "sash" mice are widely used to investigate mast cell functions. However, mutations of c-Kit also affect additional cells of hematopoietic and nonimmune origin. In this study, we demonstrate that Kit(W-sh) causes aberrant extramedullary myelopoiesis characterized by the expansion of immature lineage-negative cells, common myeloid progenitors, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the spleen. A consistent feature shared by these cell types is the reduced expression of c-Kit. Populations expressing intermediate and high levels of Ly6G, a component of the myeloid differentiation Ag Gr-1, are also highly expanded in the spleen of sash mice. These cells are able to suppress T cell responses in vitro and phenotypically and functionally resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC typically accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and are able to dampen immune responses. Consequently, transfer of MDSC from naive sash mice into line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumor-bearing wild-type littermates leads to enhanced tumor progression. However, although it can also be observed in sash mice, accelerated growth of transplanted line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumors is a mast cell-independent phenomenon. Thus, the Kit(W-sh) mutation broadly affects key steps in myelopoiesis that may have an impact on mast cell research.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23636054
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Peter Hoch-Kraft, Robin White, Stefan Tenzer, Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers, Jacqueline Trotter, and Constantin Gonsior In the central nervous system, oligodendroglial expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) is crucial for the assembly and structure of the myelin sheath. MBP synthesis is tightly regulated in space and time, particularly at the post-transcriptional level. We have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 (also known as p68) in a complex with Mbp mRNA in oligodendroglial cells. Expression of DDX5 is highest in progenitor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, where it localizes to heterogeneous populations of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes associated with Mbp mRNA in the cell body and processes. Manipulation of the amount of DDX5 protein inversely affects the level of MBP. We present evidence that DDX5 is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of MBP protein synthesis, with implications for oligodendroglial development. In addition, knockdown of DDX5 results in an increased abundance of MBP isoforms containing exon 2 in immature oligodendrocytes, most likely by regulating alternative splicing of Mbp . Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex nature of MBP post-transcriptional control in immature oligodendrocytes where DDX5 appears to affect the abundance of MBP proteins via distinct but converging mechanisms.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-09-17
    Description: Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelium is believed to result in the excessive translocation of commensal bacteria into the bowel wall that drives chronic mucosal inflammation in Crohn's disease, an incurable inflammatory bowel disease in humans characterized by inflammation of the terminal ileum. In healthy individuals, the intestinal epithelium maintains a physical barrier, established by the tight contact of cells. Moreover, specialized epithelial cells such as Paneth cells and goblet cells provide innate immune defence functions by secreting mucus and antimicrobial peptides, which hamper access and survival of bacteria adjacent to the epithelium. Epithelial cell death is a hallmark of intestinal inflammation and has been discussed as a possible pathogenic mechanism driving Crohn's disease in humans. However, the regulation of epithelial cell death and its role in intestinal homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role for caspase-8 in regulating necroptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and terminal ileitis. Mice with a conditional deletion of caspase-8 in the intestinal epithelium (Casp8(DeltaIEC)) spontaneously developed inflammatory lesions in the terminal ileum and were highly susceptible to colitis. Casp8(DeltaIEC) mice lacked Paneth cells and showed reduced numbers of goblet cells, indicating dysregulated antimicrobial immune cell functions of the intestinal epithelium. Casp8(DeltaIEC) mice showed increased cell death in the Paneth cell area of small intestinal crypts. Epithelial cell death was induced by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, was associated with increased expression of receptor-interacting protein 3 (Rip3; also known as Ripk3) and could be inhibited on blockade of necroptosis. Lastly, we identified high levels of RIP3 in human Paneth cells and increased necroptosis in the terminal ileum of patients with Crohn's disease, suggesting a potential role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of this disease. Together, our data demonstrate a critical function of caspase-8 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in protecting IECs from TNF-alpha-induced necroptotic cell death.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3373730/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3373730/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gunther, Claudia -- Martini, Eva -- Wittkopf, Nadine -- Amann, Kerstin -- Weigmann, Benno -- Neumann, Helmut -- Waldner, Maximilian J -- Hedrick, Stephen M -- Tenzer, Stefan -- Neurath, Markus F -- Becker, Christoph -- AI037988/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI037988/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- WT087768MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 14;477(7364):335-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10400.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine 1, Friedrich-Alexander-University, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21921917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Caspase 8/genetics/*metabolism ; Colitis/enzymology/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Crohn Disease/enzymology/immunology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Gene Deletion ; Goblet Cells/pathology ; Humans ; In Vitro Techniques ; Mice ; Necrosis ; Paneth Cells/enzymology/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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