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  • 1
    Abstract: PURPOSE: We elucidated the value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as an independent predictor for pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and as a prognostic marker for disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated stromal TILs in 498 HER2-positive breast cancer samples of the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro (G4) and GeparQuinto (G5) trials. Levels of TILs were determined as a continuous parameter per 10% increase and as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC; 〉/= 60% TILs), and correlated with pCR rate and DFS. RESULTS: In the complete cohort, HER2-positive LPBC cases had a significantly increased pCR rates compared with non-LPBC types. They were significant predictors for pCR in univariate (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.002; LPBC: OR 2.02, P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (10% TILs: OR 1.1, P = 0.014; LPBC: OR 1.87, P = 0.009). This effect was also detectable in the trastuzumab-treated (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.018; LPBC: OR 2.08, P = 0.013) but not in the lapatinib-treated subgroup. We identified a low-risk (pCR/LPBC) and a high-risk group (no pCR/no LPBC) regarding DFS. In triple-positive breast cancer, TILs are of more prognostic relevance than pCR. CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate the predictive and prognostic impact of TILs in HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In combination with pCR rate, TILs may help to stratify prognostic subgroups, thereby guiding future therapy decisions. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5747-54. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27189162
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: TP53 mutations are frequent in breast cancer, however their clinical relevance in terms of response to chemotherapy is controversial. METHODS: 450 pre-therapeutic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsies from the phase II neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial that included HER2-positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were subjected to Sanger sequencing of exons 5-8 of the TP53 gene. TP53 status was correlated to response to neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without carboplatin and trastuzumab/lapatinib in HER2-positive and bevacizumab in TNBC. p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the TNBC subgroup. RESULTS: Of 450 breast cancer samples 297 (66.0%) were TP53 mutant. Mutations were significantly more frequent in TNBC (74.8%) compared to HER2-positive cancers (55.4%, P 〈 0.0001). Neither mutations nor different mutation types and effects were associated with pCR neither in the whole study group nor in molecular subtypes (P 〉 0.05 each). Missense mutations tended to be associated with a better survival compared to all other types of mutations in TNBC (P = 0.093) and in HER2-positive cancers (P = 0.071). In TNBC, missense mutations were also linked to higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, P = 0.028). p53 protein overexpression was also linked with imporved survival (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms high TP53 mutation rates in TNBC and HER2-positive breast cancer. Mutations did not predict the response to an intense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these two molecular breast cancer subtypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27611952
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  • 3
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors. RESULTS: Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P 〈 .001) and multivariable analyses (P 〈 .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P 〈 .001). pCR rates 〉/= 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P 〈 .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P 〈 .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P 〈 .001). CONCLUSION: Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25534375
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  • 4
    Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a central predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Inaccurate HER2 results in different laboratories could be as high as 20%. However, this statement is based on data generated more than 13 years ago and may not reflect the standards of modern diagnostic pathology. We compared central and local HER2 testing in a total of 1581 HER2-positive tumors from five clinical trials. We evaluated the clinical relevance for pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival in a subgroup of 677 tumors, which received an anti-HER2 therapy. Over the period of 12 years, the discordance rate for HER2 decreased from 52.4 (GeparTrio) to 8.4% (GeparSepto). Discordance rates were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors (26.6%), compared to HR-negative tumors (16.3%, P〈0.0001), which could be explained by a different distribution of HER2 mRNA levels in HR-positive and HR-negative tumors. pCR rates were significantly lower in discordant tumors (13.7%) compared to concordant tumors (32.2%, GeparQuattro and GeparQuinto, P〈0.001). In survival analysis, tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced overall survival (OS) in the HR-negative group (P=0.019) and a trend for improved OS in the HR-positive group (P=0.125). The performance of local HER2 testing was considerably improved over time and has reached a 92% concordance, which shows that quality initiatives in diagnostic pathology are working. Tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced therapy response and different survival rates.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29271415
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  • 5
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that benefit from trastuzumab and chemotherapy might be related to expression of HER2 and estrogen receptor (ESR1). Therefore, we investigated HER2 and ESR1 mRNA levels in core biopsies of HER2-positive breast carcinomas from patients treated within the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial. METHODS: HER2 levels were centrally analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and qRT-PCR in 217 pretherapeutic formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) core biopsies. All tumors had been HER2-positive by local pathology and had been treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab/ chemotherapy in GeparQuattro. RESULTS: Only 73% of the tumors (158 of 217) were centrally HER2-positive (cHER2-positive) by IHC/SISH, with cHER2-positive tumors showing a significantly higher pCR rate (46.8% vs. 20.3%, P 〈0.0005). HER2 status by qRT-PCR showed a concordance of 88.5% with the central IHC/SISH status, with a low pCR rate in those tumors that were HER2-negative by mRNA analysis (21.1% vs. 49.6%, P 〈0.0005). The level of HER2 mRNA expression was linked to response rate in ESR1-positive tumors, but not in ESR1-negative tumors. HER2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with pCR in the HER2-positive/ESR1-positive tumors (P = 0.004), but not in HER2-positive/ESR1-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Only patients with cHER2-positive tumors - irrespective of the method used - have an increased pCR rate with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. In patients with cHER2-negative tumors the pCR rate is comparable to the pCR rate in the non-trastuzumab treated HER-negative population. Response to trastuzumab is correlated to HER2 mRNA levels only in ESR1-positive tumors. This study adds further evidence to the different biology of both subsets within the HER2-positive group.Introduction The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is the prototype of a predictive biomarker for targeted treatment 12345678. International initiatives have established the combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization as the current gold standard 910. As an additional approach determination of HER2 mRNA expression is technically feasible in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue 111213. Crosstalk between the estrogen receptor (ER) and the HER2 pathway has been suggested based on cell culture and animal models 14. Consequently, the 2011 St Gallen panel has pointed out that HER2-positive tumors should be divided into two groups based on expression of the ER 15.A retrospective analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B31 study has suggested that mRNA levels of HER2 and ESR1 might be relevant for the degree of benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. By subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis in ER-positive tumors, benefit from trastuzumab was shown to be restricted to those with higher levels of HER2 mRNA (S Paik, personal communication, results summarized in 15).In our study we evaluated this hypothesis in the neoadjuvant setting in a cohort of 217 patients from the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial 5. All patients had been HER2- positive by local pathology assessment and had received 24 to 36 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus an anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy. For central evaluation we used three different methods, HER2 IHC, and HER2 silver in situ hybridization (SISH), as well as measurement of HER2 mRNA by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR 11.The primary objective of this analysis was to investigate if pathological complete response (pCR) rate in HER2-positive breast cancer would depend on the level of HER2 mRNA expression, with a separate analysis for HR-positive and -negative tumors. Central evaluation of the HER2 status showed that 27% of the tumors with HER2 overexpression by local pathology were HER2-negative. This enabled us to compare response rates in patients with HER2-positive and -negative tumors as a secondary objective.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23391338
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Onkologe 5 (1999), S. 290-296 
    ISSN: 1433-0415
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eine monoklonale Gammopathie ist meist Zeichen einer nicht malignen Grunderkrankung, stellt aber andererseits eines der charakteristischen Merkmale eines Multiplen Myeloms. Die Unterscheidung zwischen einer monoklonalen Gammopathie unbestimmter Signifikanz (MGUS) und dem Frühstadium eines Multiplen Myeloms (MM) kann problematisch sein. Dies gilt auch für die Unterscheidung der einzelnen Formvarianten des MM. Obwohl die Grenzen tumorbiologisch gesehen fließend sind, sollte man durch klare Diagnosekriterien eine Kategorisierung durchführen, da dies therapeutische Handlungsanweisungen beinhaltet. Besonders wichtig ist die Abgrenzung solitärer Plasmozytome, da sie potentiell heilbar sind. Das folgende Kapitel soll einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Formvarianten monoklonaler Gammopathien geben. Neben diagnostischen Kriterien zur Differenzierung der verschiedenen Entitäten werden für die Varianten des MM und die solitären Plasmozytome auch die aktuellen therapeutischen Empfehlungen vorgestellt.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words High-risk acute myeloid leukemia ; Idarubicin ; Fludarabine ; rhG-CSF ; Priming concept
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The current phase-II trial was initiated to assess the efficacy and toxicity of the Ida-FLAG regimen in patients with poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Three subgroups of patients with AML were eligible for the study: (a) refractory, (b) first relapse, or (c) secondary AML (i.e., signs of trilineage myelodysplasia at diagnosis or the history of a myelodysplasia or myeloproliferative disorder). Fifty-seven fully evaluable patients were included in the study. Twenty patients received a second course of Ida-FLAG. Complete remission was achieved by 1/14 patients with refractory AML, 12/15 patients with relapsed AML, and 17/28 patients with secondary AML. The median duration of ANC 〈1000/μl was 17 days (10–36); of platelets 〈30,000/μl 23 days (9–65); of days with fever 〉38.0  °C 6 days (1–33). Thirteen patients (22.8%) died within 42 days of severe infection or hemorrhage. Overall survival at 20 weeks in the subgroups was 24% for patients with refractory, 78% for patients with relapsed, and 55% for patients with secondary AML. The toxicity of the first cycle of Ida-FLAG is moderate. The feasibility and subjective tolerance of the Ida-FLAG regimen are acceptable. There is no evidence for an increase of atypical infections. The efficacy for patients with secondary AML and especially those with first relapse of AML is good, with a high rate of complete remissions. Remission duration seems to be short. Therefore, an intensified post-remission therapy seems necessary.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Hodgkin' s disease ; Liver biopsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Liver biopsy is an invasive diagnostic method for detecting liver involvement (LI) in Hodgkin's disease (HD). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine and evaluate a method for restricting liver biopsy to a subset of patients. Between 1988 and 1994, a total of 2016 patients with HD were treated within the HD4–6 study protocol of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG). We investigated the predictive power of abdominal ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), as well as of various clinical factors related to LI, using univariate and multivariate methods. LI occurred in 4.9% of all patients (99/2016) and in 3.0% of those who, if LI were disregarded, would have been included in clinical stages I and II. In multivariate analysis the presence of LI was significantly associated with splenic involvement or infradiaphragmatic involvement, absence of mediastinal involvement, serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) level over 230 units/l, and age over 40 years. We used these factors to define a risk score for LI. LI is very rare in patients who would otherwise be in clinical stages I or II, but knowledge of LI is important because it has therapeutic consequences. With our risk score, liver biopsy is indicated for approximately one quarter of these patients otherwise in clinical stages I or II.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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