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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 53 (1997), S. 513-523 
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The ferritins are a multigene family of proteins that concentrate and store iron in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 24 monomeric subunits which fold as four-helix bundles assemble to form a protein shell with 432 cubic symmetry and an external diameter of ∼130 Å. The iron is stored inside the protein shell as a mineralized core ∼80 Å in diameter. Recombinant amphibian red cell M ferritin crystallizes in ∼2 M (NH4)2SO4 at pH 4.6 in a space group that has not been reported previously. Electron microscopy, precession photography, Patterson and Fourier maps of the native protein and a UO{_2^{2+}} derivative, and simulations were used to determine that the unit-cell dimensions are a = b = 169.6, c = 481.2 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and the space group is P41212 or P43212. A preliminary model of the structure was obtained by molecular replacement, with amphibian red cell L ferritin as the model. In contrast to previously determined ferritin crystal structures which have intermolecular contacts at the twofold and threefold molecular axes, M ferritin crystals have a novel intermolecular interaction mediated by interdigitation of the DE loops of two molecules at the fourfold molecular axes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein crystallography ; four helix bundle ; iron ; macromolecular assembly ; regulation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ferritin is a 24 subunit protein that controls biomineralization of iron in animals, bacteria, and plants. Rates of mineralization vary among members of the ferritin family, particularly between L and H type subunits of animal ferritins which are differentially expressed in various cell types. To examine ferritin from a highly differentiated cell type and to clarify the relationship between ferritin structure and function, bullfrog red cell L ferritin has been cloned, overexpressed in E. coli, and crystallized under two conditions. Crystals were obtained at high ionic strength in the presence of MnCl2 at a concentration comparable to that of the protein and in the presence of MgCl2 at a concentration much higher than that of the protein. Under both crystallization conditions, the crystals are tetragonal bipyramids in the space group F432 with unit cell dimensions a=b=c= 182 ± 0.5 Å. Crystals obtained in the presence of manganese and ammonium sulfate diffract to 1.9 Å, while those obtained in the presence of magnesium and sodium tartrate diffract to 1.6 Å. Isomorphous crystals have been obtained under similar conditions for a site-directed mutant with a reduced mineralization rate in which Glu-57, -58, -59, and -61 are all replaced by Ala. The structure of wild type L-subunit with magnesium has been solved by molecular replacement using the calcium salt of human liver H subunit (Lawson et al., Nature (London) 349:541-544, 1991) as the model. The crystallographic R factor for the 6-2.2 Å shell is 0.21. The overall fold of human H and bullfrog L ferritins is similar with an rms difference in backbone atomic positions of 0.97 Å. The largest structural differences occur in the D helix and the loop connecting the D and E helices of the four helix bundle. Because red cell L ferritin and liver H ferritin show differences in both rates of mineralization and three-dimensional structure, more detailed comparisons of these structures are likely to shed new light on the relationship between conformation and function. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1327
    Keywords: Key words Iron kinetics ; Ferritin ; Ferroxidase ; Tyrosine modification ; Raman spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  Ferritins uniquely direct the vectorial transfer of hydrated Fe(II)/Fe(III) ions to a condensed ferric phase in the central cavity of the soluble protein. Secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure are conserved in ferritin, but only five amino acid residues are conserved among all known ferritins. The sensitivity of ferroxidation rates to small differences in primary sequence between ferritin subunits that are cell-specifically expressed or to the conservative replacement of the conserved tyrosine 30 residue was demonstrated by examining recombinant (frog) H-type (red blood cell predominant) and M-type subunit (liver predominant) proteins which are both fast ferritins; the proteins form two differently colored Fe(III)-protein complexes absorbing at 550 nm or 650 nm, respectively. The complexes are convenient reporters of Fe(III)-protein interaction because they are transient in contrast to the Fe(III)-oxy complexes measured in the past at 310–420 nm, which are stable because of contributions from the mineral itself. The A650-nm species formed 18-fold faster in the M-subunit protein than did the 550-nm species in H-subunit ferritin, even though all the ferroxidase residues are the same; the Vmax was fivefold faster but the Hill coefficents were identical (1.6), suggesting similar mechanisms. In H-subunit ferritin, substitution of phenylalanine for conserved tyrosine 30 (located in the core of the subunit four-helix bundle) slowed ferroxidation tenfold, whereas changing surface tyrosine 25 or tyrosine 28 had no effect. The Fe(III)-tyrosinate was fortunately not changed by the mutation, based on the resonance Raman spectrum, and remained a suitable reporter for Fe(III)-protein interactions. Thus, the A550/650 nm can also report on post-oxidation events such as transport through the protein. The impact of Y30F on rates of formation of Fe(III)-protein complexes in ferritin, combined with Mössbauer spectroscopic studies that showed the parallel formation of multiple Fe(III) postoxidation species (three dinuclear oxy and one trinuclear oxy species) (A. S. Periera et al., Biochemistry 36 : 7917–7927, 1997) and the loss of several of the multimeric Fe(III) post-oxidation species in a Y30F alteration of human recombinant H-ferritin (E. R. Bauminger et al., Biochem J. 296 : 709–719, 1993), indicate that at least one of the pathways for Fe oxidation/transfer in ferritin is through the center of the four-helix bundle and is influenced by structural features dependent on tyrosine 30.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Soybean ; Ferritin ; Plant-animal ; Monocotyledons ; Dicotyledons ; Plastid ; Gene organization ; Evolution ; Intron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron −1011−1012-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess iron; iron signals target DNA in plants but mRNA in animals. Evolution has thus conserved the two end points of ferritin gene expression, the physiological signals and the protein structure, while allowing some divergence of the genetic mechanisms. Comparison of ferritin gene organization in plants and animals, made possible by the cloning of a dicot (soy-bean) ferritin gene presented here and the recent cloning of two monocot (maize) ferritin genes, shows evolutionary divergence in ferritin gene organization between plants and animals but conservation among plants or among animals; divergence in the genetic mechanism for iron regulation is reflected by the absence in all three plant genes of the IRE, a highly conserved, noncoding sequence in vertebrate animal ferritin mRNA. In plant ferritin genes, the number of introns (n = 7) is higher than in animals (n = 3). Second, no intron positions are conserved when ferritin genes of plants and animals are compared, although all ferritin gene introns are in the coding region; within kingdoms, the intron positions in ferritin genes are conserved. Finally, secondary protein structure has no apparent relationship to intron/exon boundaries in plant ferritin genes, whereas in animal ferritin genes the correspondence is high. The structural differences in introns/exons among phylogenetically related ferritin coding sequences and the high conservation of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms suggest that kingdom-specific functional constraints may exist to maintain a particular intron/exon pattern within ferritin genes. In the case of plants, where ferritin gene intron placement is unrelated to triplet codons or protein structure, and where ferritin is targeted to the plastid, the selection pressure on gene organization may relate to RNA function and plastid/nuclear signaling.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8773
    Keywords: Ferritin ; Iron core ; Iron reduction ; X-ray absorption spectroscopy ; Thioglycolic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The release of iron from ferritin is important in the formation of iron proteins and for the management of diseases in both animals and plants associated with abnormal accumulations of ferritin iron. Much more iron can be released experimentally by reduction of the ferric hydrous oxide core than by chelation of Fe3+ which has led to the notion that reduction is also the major aspect of iron release in vivo. Variations in the kinetics of reduction of the mineral core of ferritin have been attributed to the redox potential of the reductant, redox properties of the iron core, the structure of the protein coat, the analytical method used to detect Fe2+ and reactions at the surface of the mineral. Direct measurements of the oxidation state of the iron during reduction has never been used to analyze the kinetics of reduction, although Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to confirm the extent of reduction after electrochemical reduction using dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (DXAS). We show that the near edge of X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) can be used to quantify the relative amounts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in mixtures of the hydrated ions. Since the nearest neighbors of iron in the ferritin iron core do not change during reduction, XANES can be used to monitor directly the reduction of the ferritin iron core. Previous studies of iron core reduction which measured by Fe2+ · bipyridyl formation, or coulometric reduction with different mediators, suggested that rates depended mainly on the redox potential of the electron donor. When DXAS was used to measure the rate of reduction directly, the initial rate was faster than previously measured. Thus, previously measured differences in reduction rates appear to be influenced by the accessibility of Fe2+ to the complexing reagent or by the electrochemical mediator. In the later stages of ferritin iron core dissolution, reduction rates drop dramatically whether measured by DXAS or formation of Fe2+ complexes. Such results emphasize the heterogeneity of ferritin core structure.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Biochemistry 56 (1987), S. 289-315 
    ISSN: 0066-4154
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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