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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present work was undertaken (a) to determine whether adult human retinal neurons possess the ability to survive and regrow neurites in organ cultures and (b) to investigate the maintenance and proliferative activity of retinal glial cells in vitro. Using material from retinae obtained from human eyes postenucleation we established in vitro organ cultures of retinal pieces in a chemically defined, serum-free medium, previously developed for culturing adult rat and chick retinae. The time course of glial cell migration and of neurite extension was compared with that of adult rat and chick retinae which have been extensively investigated in our laboratory. It appeared from four explanted retinae that the human retinal cells survive for up to 4 weeks in culture and exhibit their typical morphologies. Immunohistochemical investigation of the migrating cells revealed that both astrocytes and Müller-like cells exhibit their typical morphologies in vitro. In explants obtained from a retina 30 years after very traumatic violence to the eye cup, the glial cells but not the neurons extended lengthy fibers. In the explants obtained from a retina about 2 months after traumatic optic nerve injury and subsequent ocular complications, several lengthy fibres were extended from the transplant's edge. They could be labeled with neurofilament antibodies but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies, indicating their neuronal origin. The results suggest that some injured human retinal neurons respond to exposure to growthpermissive substrates by regeneration of their neurites. Although some morphological features of the fibers suggest that they originate from ganglion cells in the retinal explants, definitive proof of this is not yet available.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract • Background: Although platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been thought to be critical in the wound-healing response of Tenon's capsule fibroblasts after glaucoma filtration surgery, no information is currently available concerning the proliferative effect of PDGF isoforms on this cell type. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proliferative effect of PDGF-AB heterodimer and PDGF-AA and -BB homodimers on cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts. • Methods: Human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts, cultured under serum-free conditions, were stimulated with PDGF-AA, -AB and -BB isoforms in concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ng/ml. Cell numbers were determined on days 1, 3, 5 and 7, using a cell counter. • Results: Addition of PDGF-AB and -BB led to a dosedependent increase in cell proliferation. A maximal response (79.9% over control) was obtained after 7 days with 30 ng/ml of PDGF-BB, with an EC50 of 8.9 ng/ml. The maximal increase in cell proliferation caused by PDGF-AB (30 ng/ml) was 54.9%, with an EC50 of 12.5 ng/ml. Stimulation with PDGF-AA revealed a significant effect only with concentrations higher than 30 ng/ml. • Conclusion: Our results indicate that PDGF-AB and -BB isoforms are potent stimulators of proliferation of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts, suggesting that PDGF-AB and -BB isoforms play an important role in the wound-healing response after glaucoma filtration surgery.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  · Purpose: The aim of the present study was to test the influence of smoking on colour perception. · Subjects and methods: At the University Eye Hospital Tübingen, 76 generally healthy smokers with inconspicuous ophthalmological findings (visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, morphology) were examined by the cap-sorting test, Roth 28-hue desaturated. Group 1 was comprised of smokers (n=20; M 9, F 11; mean age 28.1±10.3 years) with a smoking consumption of less than one packet of cigarettes per day (8.4±5.3 cigarettes/day) for 9.1±8.3 years. Group 2 consisted of smokers (n=32; M 22, F 10; mean age 28.6±9.7 years) with a smoking consumption of one or more than one packet per day (30±8.4 cigarettes/day) for 9.5±8.3 years. Generally healthy and ophthalmologically normal non-smokers served as a control group (n=76; M 41, F 35; mean age 30±9 years). · Results: The average error score of the control group was (median±mean absolute deviation) 42±18. Group 1 showed no difference to the control group (51±27; P=0.42). On the other hand, group 2 had a significantly higher error score than the control group (102±45; P〈0.0001). · Conclusion: Otherwise healthy smokers with a cigarette consumption of less than 20 cigarettes per day do not show any disturbances in colour vision. Smokers who consume more than 20 cigarettes per day may suffer colour vision defects as a result.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  · Background: The refractive outcome of thermokeratoplasty for astigmatism correction depends upon the optical zone diameter (OZD) and the coagulation angle (CA; distance between two coagulation spots around the flat meridian). · Methods: Astigmatism was induced in 36 spherical human eye-bank eyes (Ho:YAG laser, 15 Hz, 20 mJ/pulse, 25 pulses per coagulation spot) with different OZDs and CAs. Thirty eyes received free-hand laser application (marked positions). Six eyes were treated using a suction mask, providing a constant OZD of 8.1 mm and an angle of 22.5° between the laser spots. To compare the results, silicone replicas of the eyes were made pre- and postoperatively and analyzed by video-topometery. · Results: With an average decrease of 4 D/mm the refractive change is inversely linear to the OZD. Changes of the CA showed significant variations between 22.5° and 45°, only. Mask guidance leads to the same amount of average refractive change. The deviation is ±3.4 D for the free-hand application but only ±0.8 D for mask guidance. · Conclusion: The data obtained in this in vitro study are transferred to a treatment nomogram describing the immediate postoperative refractive change, not identical with the final refraction. The results of the study are limited by the fact that astigmatism was induced in spherical corneas, rather than correcting preexisting ones.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experimental models of autoimmune uveitis are consistently associated with pinealitis. To investigate the interaction between the neuroendocrine and immune systems in humans with uveitis, we measured serum levels of the predominant pineal hormone melatonin (MEL), prolactin (PRL) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). A total of 100 patients with different forms of uveitis and 30 age-matched, healthy blood donors were evaluated retrospectively. The day-time MEL was reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.01) in patients with iritis and iridocyclitis, and highly significantly (P ≤ 0.001) in patients with intermediate uveitis, chorioretinitis and panuveitis. In 38% of patients day-time MEL levels in plasma were below the limit of detection. PRL was significantly reduced (P 〈0.01) in patients with intermediate uveitis. IL-2 was reduced to about 50% of control values in all groups of patients. The results suggest a possible neuroendocrine-immune interaction in uveitis patients.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  · Background: A study was carried out to evaluate the extent of psychosomatic complaints in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. · Methods: Twenty-four patients (M:F=3:21; mean age 58±15.3 years) with normal-tension glaucoma were rated according to the von Zerssen Symptom List (psychosomatic discomfort), the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI-N, emotional status and MPI-E, extroverted–introverted), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). An age- and sex-matched control group (n=24; M:F=3:21; mean age 56±13 years) without any ocular or other general chronic disease was selected. · Results: In comparison with the control group the patients with normal-tension glaucoma showed significantly more complaints (von Zerssen Symptom List) and were more emotionally unstable (MPI-N). No group differences were found regarding extroversion–introversion (MPI-E) and depression (BDI). In the 16PF, patients with normal-tension glaucoma were remarkable, only for a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and psychic endurance. · Conclusion: The results demonstrate that patients with normal-tension glaucoma show evident psychosomatic involvement. However, the sequence of the pathogenetic development remains unclear. Therefore, it is not known whether these psychological disturbances are factors contributing to the development of normal-tension glaucoma or whether they are a result of normal-tension glaucoma. Nevertheless, some patients with normal-tension glaucoma had these disturbances. Besides reduction of intraocular pressure and improvement of vascular condition, those who display psychological disturbances should receive psychological support, such as autogenic training.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0423
    Keywords: Key words Perimetry • Suprathreshhold • Threshhold • Duration of examination • Tübinger Automatic Perimeter ; Schlüsselwörter Perimetrie •Überschwellig • Schwellenwert • Untersuchungsdauer • Tübinger Automatikperimeter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Einleitung: Am Tübinger Automatikperimeter CC wurde eine vergleichende Studie zwischen der bekannten, schwellenorientiert überschwelligen Strategie und einer Schwellenwertstrategie mit 2 facher Eingabelung in 4- und 2-dB-Schritten durchgeführt. Ziel der Untersuchung war es, festzustellen, ob die Schwellenwertstrategie Vorteile gegenüber der bisher eingesetzten schwellenorientiert überschwelligen Strategie bietet. Methode: 49 freiwillige Patienten wurden am gleichen Tag mit der schwellenorientiert überschwelligen Perimetrie und der Schwellenwertperimetrie am Tübinger Automatikperimeter im 30 °-Gesichtsfeld untersucht. Die Untersuchung erfolgte mit 191 Punkten bei der schwellenorientiert überschwelligen Strategie. 67 Punkte wurden bei der Schwellenwertstrategie eingesetzt, ähnlich der Prüfpunktanordnung anderer Perimeter mit Schwellenwertstrategie. Einschlußkriterien waren: zentrale Lichtunterschiedsempfindlichkeit 〉 25 dB, Fixation 〉 80 %, geprüfte Leuchtdichteklasse 〈 − 2. Ergebnisse/Diskussion: Bei unauffälligen Gesichtsfeldbefunden oder kleinen Skotomen war die schwellenorientiert überschwellige Strategie um 2–3 min schneller als die Schwellenwertstrategie, bei großen Skotomen um bis zu 15 min langsamer. Auch in der subjektiven Prüfung der Ausfallskonfiguration fanden sich Unterschiede. Bei großflächigen Skotomen war die Erkennbarkeit der Ausfallskonfiguration für beide Strategien gegeben. Mit Abnahme der Skotomgröße führte das grobe, bei der Schwellenwertperimetrie verwendete Raster dazu, daß im Vergleich zur schwellenorientiert überschwelligen Perimetrie mit größerer Rasterdichte die Erkennbarkeit der Ausfallskonfiguration nachließ.
    Notes: Background: We compared the standard suprathreshhold strategy to the so-called threshhold splitting strategy with 5 and 2 dB steps. The aim of the study was to establish whether the threshhold splitting strategy had advantages over the suprathreshhold strategy that has been used to date. Method: We examined the 30 ° visual field in 49 volunteers using suprathreshhold perimetry and on the same day threshhold splitting perimetry on the Tübinger Automatic Perimeter CC. A total of 191 test points were examined in suprathreshhold strategy. Using the threshhold splitting strategy, 67 test points were examined, with a test-point design similar to other perimeters with the threshhold splitting strategy. The criteria for inclusion in the study were central light sensitivity differences greater than 25 dB, fixation better than 80 % and an illumination class density 〈 2. Results/Discussion: The average duration of the examination using the suprathreshhold strategy was 2–3 min quicker than the threshhold splitting strategy in normal visual fields or small scotomas, but it took up to 15 min longer if large scotomas were present. Interpretation of the scotoma configuration showed subjective differences: the smaller the scotoma, the greater the differences because of the fact that threshhold splitting perimetry utilizes test points that are farther apart than those used in suprathreshhold perimetry.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-0423
    Keywords: Key words Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) • Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) • T-cells • Macrophages • Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) ; Schlüsselwörter Experimentelle Autoimmun-Uveitis (EAU) • Interphotorezeptor retinoid bindendes Protein (IRBP) • T-Zellen • Makrophagen • ; Interzelluläres Adhäsionsmolekül (ICAM)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Hintergrund: Die chronische Form der murinen experimentellen Autoimmun-Uveitis (EAU) zeigt Ähnlichkeiten mit der humanen Chorioretinitis. Ziel war die Untersuchung der Infiltrationskinetik der T-Zellen, Makrophagen sowie der Adhäsionsmoleküle ICAM-1 und ICAM-2. Material und Methoden: B10.A Mäuse wurden subkutan mit IRBP (Interphotorezeptor retinal bindendes Protein) immunisiert und die Augen am Tag 10, 18, 24 und 28 analysiert. Die infiltrierenden Zellen wurden mit Antikörpern gegen T-Zell-Rezeptoren (TCR) Vß6 und Vß8, T-Zellmarker, Makrophagen sowie ICAM-1 und ICAM-2 untersucht. Ergebnisse: CD8 + Zellen und ICAM-2 waren vom Tag 10 (bei noch intakter Retina) bis Tag 28, CD4 + -Zellen, Makrophagen und ICAM-1 waren mit Beginn destruktiver Veränderungen ab Tag 18 nachweisbar. Der dominierende TCR war vom Tag 10 an Vß6, ab Tag 18 Vß8. Schlußfolgerung: CD8 + -T-Zellen infiltrieren als erste Zellen die noch intakte Retina und könnten die Uveitis durch Stimulation der HEV (high endothelial venules)-Expression auslösen.
    Notes: Summary The chronic model of murine EAU induced by interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein represents a disease similar to clinical chorioretinitis. In this study we characterized the kinetics of retina infiltrating T-cells, macrophages and expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ICAM-2. Methods: B10.A mice were immunized subcutaneously with IRBP, and the eyes were analyzed on days 10, 18, 24 and 28. The infiltrating cells were characterized by mAbs recognizing T-cell receptors (TCR) Vß6 and Vß8, T-cell markers, macrophages and ICAM-1 and ICAM-2. Results: While CD8 + T-cells and ICAM-2 were detectable from day 10 (retina is intact) until day 28, CD4 + T-cells, macrophages and ICAM-1 appear with the onset of retinal destruction. Starting at day 10 the dominating TCR was Vß6; Vß8 was noticed from day 18 on. Conclusion: CD8 + T-cells infiltrating the intact retina and stimulating the expression of high endothelial venules (HEVs) could be responsiable for the onset of uveitis.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Ophthalmologe 94 (1997), S. 926-928 
    ISSN: 1433-0423
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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