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  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; THERAPY ; LYMPHOCYTES ; CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY ; DONORS ; ANTIGEN SURVIVIN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Therapeutic vaccination directed to induce an anti-tumoral T-cell response is a field of extensive investigation in the treatment of melanoma. However, many vaccination trials in melanoma failed to demonstrate a correlation between the vaccine-specific immune response and therapy outcome. This has been mainly attributed to immune escape by antigen loss, rendering us in the need of new vaccination targets. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase-II trial investigated a peptide vaccination against survivin, an oncogenic inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein crucial for the survival of tumor cells, in HLA-A1/-A2/-B35-positive patients with treatment-refractory stage-IV metastatic melanoma. The study endpoints were survivin-specific T-cell reactivity (SSTR), safety, response, and survival (OS). RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (ITT) received vaccination therapy using three different regimens. 55 patients (PP) were evaluable for response and survival, and 41/55 for SSTR. Patients achieving progression arrest (CR + PR + SD) more often showed SSTRs than patients with disease progression (p = 0.0008). Patients presenting SSTRs revealed a prolonged OS (median 19.6 vs. 8.6 months; p = 0.0077); multivariate analysis demonstrated SSTR as an independent predictor of survival (p = 0.013). The induction of SSTRs was associated with gender (female vs. male; p = 0.014) and disease stage (M1a/b vs. M1c; p = 0.010), but not with patient age, HLA type, performance status, or vaccination regimen. CONCLUSION: Survivin-specific T-cell reactivities strongly correlate with tumor response and patient survival, indicating that vaccination with survivin-derived peptides is a promising treatment strategy in melanoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22565484
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  • 2
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CANCER ; CELLS ; BLOOD ; CELL ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; COMBINATION ; NEW-YORK ; DISTINCT ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; RESPONSES ; BASE ; CD8(+) T-CELLS ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; ASSOCIATION ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; IDENTIFICATION ; ASSAY ; NUMBER ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; COUNTRIES ; MELANOMA ; LYMPHOCYTES ; VARIABILITY ; PEPTIDES ; NETHERLANDS ; CD8(+) ; ELISPOT ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; T lymphocyte ; sensitivity ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; PROJECT ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; tetramer ; T lymphocytes ; GUIDELINES ; HETEROGENEITY ; CANCER VACCINES ; ONCOLOGY ; monitoring ; INCREASE ; analysis ; methods ; ASSAYS ; PHASE ; technique ; USA ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; STANDARDIZATION ; VARIABLES ; immunology ; INCREASES ; clinical trial ; CELL RESPONSES ; IMPORTANT DETERMINANT ; CD4+T-CELL IMMUNITY ; CYTOKINE FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; GAMMA ELISPOT ASSAYS ; Interlaboratory testing
    Abstract: The interpretation of the results obtained from immunomonitoring of clinical trials is a difficult task due to the variety of methods and protocols available to detect vaccine-specific T-cell responses. This heterogeneity as well as the lack of standards has led to significant scepticism towards published results. In February 2005, a working group was therefore founded under the aegis of the Association for Immunotherapy of Cancer ("CIMT") in order to compare techniques and protocols applied for the enumeration of antigen-specific T-cell responses. Here we present the results from two consecutive phases of an international inter-laboratory testing project referred to as the "CIMT monitoring panel". A total of 13 centers from six European countries participated in the study in which pre-tested PBMC samples, synthetic peptides and PE-conjugated HLA-tetramers were prepared centrally and distributed to participants. All were asked to determine the number of antigen-specific T-cells in each sample using tetramer staining and one functional assay. The results of the first testing round revealed that the total number of cells analyzed was the most important determinant for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells by tetramer staining. Analysis by ELISPOT was influenced by a combination of cell number and a resting phase after thawing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the experiments were repeated in a second phase but now the participants were asked to change their protocols according to the new guidelines distilled from the results of the first phase. The recommendations improved the number of antigen-specific T-cell responses that were detected and decreased the variability between the laboratories. We conclude that a two-step approach in inter-laboratory testing allows the identification of distinct variables that influence the sensitivity of different T-cell assays and to formally show that a defined correction to the protocols successfully increases the sensitivity and reduces the inter-center variability. Such "two-step" inter-laboratory projects could define rational bases for accepted international guidelines and thereby lead to the harmonization of the techniques used for immune monitoring
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17721783
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  • 3
    Abstract: Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models. Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed that NK cells were mobilized by epinephrine, and blockade of beta-adrenergic signaling blunted training-dependent tumor inhibition. Moreover, epinephrine induced a selective mobilization of IL-6-sensitive NK cells, and IL-6-blocking antibodies blunted training-induced tumor suppression, intratumoral NK cell infiltration, and NK cell activation. Together, these results link exercise, epinephrine, and IL-6 to NK cell mobilization and redistribution, and ultimately to control of tumor growth.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26895752
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Melanoma ; Melanoma-associated antigens ; Cytolytic T cell clones ; Interferon γ ; Interleukin-10 ; Immunogenicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Human melanoma is a highly immunogenic tumor capable of inducing a specific immune response. A number of melanoma-associated antigens have been characterized during the past several years and can be classified into two groups: differentiation antigens  –  present also in normal melanocytes  –  and tumor-specific antigens, which, with the exception of testis, are present only in tumor cells. In a previous publication [Kirkin A. F., Petersen T. R., Olsen A. C., Li L., thor Straten P., Zeuthen J. (1995) Cancer Immunol Immunother 41:71] we have described the production of clones of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against the highly immunogenic human melanoma cell line FM3. Using these clones we have defined four previously unknown melanoma-associated antigens, which could be subdivided into differentiation and progression antigens. In the experiments reported in this paper, we have further compared CTL clones from different groups and shown that the sensitivity of melanoma cells to CTL that recognize differentiation or progression antigens is differentially modulated during tumor progression as well as by the lymphokines interferon γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The interaction of CTL clones recognizing progression antigens was strongly increased after treatment of melanoma cells with IFNγ, while the recognition by CTL clones specific for differentiation antigens either was unchanged or significantly decreased. IL-10 treatment of melanoma cells induced up-regulation with respect to recognition by CTL clones specific for differentiation antigens without affecting the recognition of melanoma cells by CTL clones specific for progression antigens. Using cellular systems at different stages of tumor progression, we demonstrated that the progressed state of melanoma cells is associated with increased sensitivity to recognition by CTL clones detecting progression antigens, and with decreased sensitivity to CTL clones recognizing differentiation antigens. Mimicking tumor progression, treatment with IFN-γ induced apparent down-regulation of differentiation antigens. A hypothesis is suggested in which IFN-γ plays different roles in the immune response against poorly immunogenic and highly immunogenic melanoma cells, increasing the progression of poorly immunogenic tumor cells or promoting a strong immune response and regression of highly immunogenic melanoma cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An HLA-A2-positive patient with advanced stage IV melanoma was vaccinated with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with melanoma antigens, whereby the rapid progression of disease stalled for a period of 10 months. Monitoring of the cellular immune response against one of the vaccinated HLA-A2-restricted epitopes demonstrated both induction and subsequent decline in the number of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing MART-1-reactive cells present in the blood. Enumeration of reactive T cells by MART-126-35/HLA-A2 tetramer staining revealed an induction of such cells after three vaccinations and a subsequent decline that most prominent at times of rapid disease progression. However, a substantial number of reactive cells were present even when no MART-1 reactivity was detectable by functional assays. Isolation of such MART-126−35-reactive T cells by means of peptide/HLA-A2-coated magnetic beads demonstrated the persistence of a TCRVβ14+ T-cell clone in this population over the whole observation period. Intracellular fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining of such TCRVβ14+ T cells for IFN-γ and interleukin-2 after maximal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin revealed an impairment in their capacity to produce cytokines at the end of the observation period. Thus, functional changes of individual T-cell clones, e.g. clonal exhaustion, seem to be responsible for the known discrepancy between functional and phenotype assays for immune monitoring of tumour patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary  The clinical, histological, phenotypic and genotypic features of a lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma presenting in the skin in a young caucasian woman are described. The disease behaved aggressively, but long-lasting remission was obtained by combination chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. The blastoid cells were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, CD34, CD56 and CD4. Furthermore, the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 was strongly expressed, as shown by examination with reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. The T-cell receptor (TCR)-γ genes were in germline, and with the exception of CD4 all T-cell antigens were negative, including CD3, TCR-β, TCR-δ, TIA-1, granzyme B and perforin. Epstein–Barr virus was negative, and no expression was seen of myeloid cell-associated markers. Molecular analysis showed no abnormalities of the CDKN2A (p16), CDKN2B (p15) or TNFRSF6 (Fas) genes. By contrast, a 34-bp deletion in exon 7 of the TP53 (p53) gene was detected. It is suggested that lymphoblastoid NK-cell lymphoma, which is a rare but distinctive disease, originates from NK cell precursors and may be associated with and possibly caused by alterations in the TP53 gene. Experience is too limited to warrant therapeutic suggestions. However, stem cell transplantation may be a useful option in younger patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis to most patients. Immunotherapy of GBM is a potentially beneficial treatment option, whose optimal implementation may depend on familiarity with tumor specific antigens, presented as HLA peptides by the GBM cells. Furthermore, early detection of GBM, such as by a routine blood test, may improve survival, even with the current treatment modalities. This study includes large-scale analyses of the HLA peptidome (immunopeptidome) of the plasma-soluble HLA molecules (sHLA) of 142 plasma samples, and the membranal HLA of GBM tumors of 10 of these patients' tumor samples. Tumor samples were fresh-frozen immediately after surgery and the plasma samples were collected before, and at multiple visits after surgery. In total, this HLA peptidome analysis involved 52 different HLA allotypes and resulted in the identification of more than 35,000 different HLA peptides. Strong correlations were observed in the signal intensities and in the repertoires of identified peptides between the tumors and plasma-soluble HLA peptidomes of the individual patients, whereas low correlations were observed between these HLA peptidomes and the tumors' proteomes. HLA peptides derived from Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) were selected based on their presence among the HLA peptidomes of the patients and absence of expression of their source genes from any healthy and essential human tissues, except from immune-privileged sites. Additionally, peptides were selected as potential biomarkers if their levels in the plasma-sHLA peptidome were significantly reduced after the removal of tumor mass. The CTAs identified among the analyzed HLA peptidomes provide new opportunities for personalized immunotherapy and for early diagnosis of GBM.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: Peptide-MHC (pMHC) multimers, usually used as streptavidin-based tetramers, have transformed the study of Ag-specific T cells by allowing direct detection, phenotyping, and enumeration within polyclonal T cell populations. These reagents are now a standard part of the immunology toolkit and have been used in many thousands of published studies. Unfortunately, the TCR-affinity threshold required for staining with standard pMHC multimer protocols is higher than that required for efficient T cell activation. This discrepancy makes it possible for pMHC multimer staining to miss fully functional T cells, especially where low-affinity TCRs predominate, such as in MHC class II–restricted responses or those directed against self-antigens. Several recent, somewhat alarming, reports indicate that pMHC staining might fail to detect the majority of functional T cells and have prompted suggestions that T cell immunology has become biased toward the type of cells amenable to detection with multimeric pMHC. We use several viral- and tumor-specific pMHC reagents to compare populations of human T cells stained by standard pMHC protocols and optimized protocols that we have developed. Our results confirm that optimized protocols recover greater populations of T cells that include fully functional T cell clonotypes that cannot be stained by regular pMHC-staining protocols. These results highlight the importance of using optimized procedures that include the use of protein kinase inhibitor and Ab cross-linking during staining to maximize the recovery of Ag-specific T cells and serve to further highlight that many previous quantifications of T cell responses with pMHC reagents are likely to have considerably underestimated the size of the relevant populations.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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