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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; REDUCED RISK ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; NETHERLANDS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; BETA-CAROTENE ; colon cancer ; EPIC PROJECT ; pooled analysis ; USA ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; colorectal ; RECTAL CANCERS ; CRC
    Abstract: Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. Design: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men and 320,770 women) completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 and were followed up for cancer incidence and mortality until 2006. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend 〈 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone (P for interaction, 0.01 for both). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a high consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of CRC, especially of colon cancer. This effect may depend on smoking status. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1441-52
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19339391
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper describes a modification of a cytochemical method for the demonstration of heavy metals. The well localized precipitate in the mast cell granules, which is also present in granules that have been separated from the cell, suggests that the metals are localized in the granules. It is demonstrated that “mast cell” grown cultures do not contain precipitate. The chelating and histamine inhibiting agent 8-hydroxyquinoline produced no changes in the histochemical pattern of the mast cell granules before nor after treatment with the histamine liberator 48/80 which provokes a release of granules from the cells. These observations suggest either that the metal (zinc) is bound to the granules in such a manner that the chelating agent cannot chemically, or based on the configurations of the metal-containing molecule, reach the metal and theraby prevent its transformation to a metal suphide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Kidney ; hypertrophy ; nephrectomy ; rat ; somatomedin C ; streptozotocin ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Kidney growth after induction of experimental diabetes in rats was compared to compensatory renal growth in response to unilateral nephrectomy. After 4 days of diabetes, kidney weight had increased from 816±21 mg (SEM) to 940±42 mg (15%). In insulin-treated diabetic rats kidney weight was unchanged at the end of the study, namely 828±15 mg. In unilaterally nephrectomised rats kidney weight increased from 840±20 mg (SEM) to 1050±60 mg during 4 days (24%). We observed increased kidney content of somatomedin C in both diabetic and uninephrectomised rats. In untreated diabetic rats it was maximal after 48 h, with an increase of 77% (3469±312 ng/g (SEM) versus 1961±173 ng/g). After 4 days the somatomedin C content had returned to initial levels. In insulin-treated rats somatomedin C content did not increase during the observation period. The somatomedin C content of the remaining kidney after unilateral nephrectomy was maximal after 24 h with an increase of 58% (from 1340±203 ng/g (SEM) to 2122±214 ng/g). The somatomedin C content returned to normal at day 4. Serum somatomedin C declined insignificantly in diabetic animals during the experimental period, but a significant decrease (p〈0.02) was found in uninephrectomised rats. This study demonstrates that kidney somatomedin C peaks during the first or second day after uninephrectomy or induction of diabetes, respectively, and that insulin treatment sufficient to prevent kidney growth abolishes the increase. These similar rapid initial hypertrophies/hyperplasies may thus be dependent on local somatomedin C formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy ; hypertrophy ; kidney ; nephrectomy ; rat ; somatomedin C ; somatostatin-analogue ; streptozotocin diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a previous study we demonstrated that the kidney content of somatomedin C was maximal one to two days after uninephrectomy or induction of diabetes, and that insulin treatment prevented an increase in kidney somatomedin C as well as kidney growth in diabetic animals. In the present study we ave examined the effect of a somatostatin analogue on kidney somatomedin C and initial renal growth in the two experimental situations. The kidney hypertrophy in untreated diabetic animals amounted to 23% four days after streptozotocin injection and followed an increase in kidney somatomedin C content of 60% reaching the maximum after 48 h. In young and old uninephrectomized rats kidney growth was 19% and 16% after four days. In young animals a prompt increase of 50% in kidney somatomedin C was seen as reaching the maximum after 24 h, while the somatomedin C content in kidneys from old animals was maximal after 48 h (increase of 58%) in good accordance with the slightly slower kidney growth. The new findings of the present study are that administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (Sandostatin) effectively prevented the obligatory increase in kidney somatomedin C content as well as kidney growth both in experimental diabetes and after uninephrectomy. It is noteworthy that Sandostatin administration did not alter the metabolic state in diabetic animals indicating that the inhibition of kidney hypertrophy could not be attributed to improved metabolic control. The results thus support the concept that somatomedin C is involved in initial diabetic and post-nephrectomy renal growth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Wound infection — Infectious complications — Ranitidine — Colorectal surgery — Immunology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective and Design: To study the potential effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in three university clinics and two county hospitals in Denmark.¶Patients and Treatment: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for perforated and/or obstructed large bowel were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive ranitidine 100 mg i.v. twice a day commencing at induction of anesthesia and continued for five days (group I) or i.v. placebo (group II). All patients were given 1.5 g metronidazole plus 3.0 g cefuroxime at the time of surgery. Patients with perforation of the colon or rectum were given metronidazole and cefuroxime for further 3 days. All patients were assessed daily until discharge from the hospital. Thirty patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed).¶Main Outcome Measures: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia.¶Results: Both groups were similar with respect to age, sex, weight, duration of surgery, blood transfusions, and site of the procedure, as well as the histologic nature of the underlying disease process. However, the Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI) was significantly higher in group I compared with group II ( p 〈 0.05). Wound infection, intraabdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia were 12.9%, 5.2%, 3.8% and 14%, respectively in group I. In group II, the infectious complications were 16.1%, 6.8%, 6.9% and 22%, respectively. Twelve patients (13.8%) in the placebo group developed more than one complication compared with 5 patients (6.5%) in the ranitidine group.¶Conclusion: Ranitidine may have a beneficial effect on postoperative infectious complications in patients following acute colorectal surgery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have developed a method for quantitating mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-induced activation of the complement system (MBL-C4-AC) in human plasma. This method and an assay for MBL concentration were applied to plasma samples from healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). The MBL concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal anti-MBL-antibodies and MBL-C4-AC by an ELISA using solid-phase mannan, incubating with plasma samples and quantitating the complement (C) activation by the use of antibodies against the C split-products C4b/C4c. The MBL concentration was nonsignificantly elevated in plasma from SLE-patients, whereas MBL-C4-AC was suppressed ( P 〈 0.04). There was no correlation between MBL concentration and MBL-C4-AC in plasma from SLE-patients. In contrast, a significant correlation was found between the MBL concentration and MBL-C4-AC in plasma from healthy individuals. The C4 concentration was significantly reduced ( P 〈 0.002) in plasma from the SLE patients and showed a significant correlation to MBL-C4-AC. The MBL-C4-AC assay was highly effective in discriminating the SLE patients from the other patient groups and healthy individuals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A histochemical technique which permits the simultaneous visualization of heavy metals and acid phosphatase at the ultrastructural level is described. The technique was applied to the anterior pituitary gland, the spinal cord and the liver. In all of the tested organs, both mercury and silver were found to accumulate primarily in the lysosomes, although small amounts of both metals could be observed in other organelles including endocytotic vesicles. In the anterior pituitary, few mercury deposits were found in the secretory granules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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