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  • 1
    Call number: QZ203:108(4)
    Keywords: Neoplasms / epidemiology ; Neoplasms / prevention & control
    Notes: Preceded by Cancer epidemiology and prevention / edited by David Schottenfeld, Joseph F. Fraumeni Jr. 3rd ed. 2006.
    Pages: xix, 1308 pages : illustrations
    Edition: 4th edition.
    ISBN: 9780190238667
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Recently, common variants on human chromosome 8q24 were found to be associated with prostate cancer risk. While conducting a genome-wide association study in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project with 550,000 SNPs in a nested case-control study (1,172 cases and 1,157 controls of ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: hair-dye ; multiple myeloma ; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To assess in a large prospective study whether women who used permanent hair dye, especially dark dye for many years, experienced increased death rates from hematopoietic and other cancers that have been associated with hair dye use in some previous reports. Methods: In 1982, 547,586 women provided information on use of permanent hair dye and other lifestyle factors when enrolled in an American Cancer Society (ACS) prospective study. We extended mortality follow-up from 7 to 12 years. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling we compared death rates from hematopoietic and other cancers among women according to their hair dye use at baseline with death rates in unexposed women. Results: The adjusted death rate from all cancers combined was marginally lower among women who ever used hair dye than nonusers (relative risk [RR] = 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9–1.0). Mortality from all hematopoietic cancers was marginally higher among users than nonusers (RR = 1.1; CI = 1.0–1.2), and increased with an index that combined duration of use and darker coloration (test of trend p = 0.02). Women who used black or brown dye for 10 or more years experienced somewhat higher death rates from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and (for black dye only) multiple myeloma. The temporal increase in death rates from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma between 1982–88 and 1989–94 was similar for women in our study who never used hair dyes to the increase among all US women. Conclusions: If prolonged use of dark permanent hair dyes contributes to death rates from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma, then the increase is small and difficult to detect reliably even in large prospective studies. The use of permanent hair dye is unlikely to be a major contributor to the temporal rise in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in the US.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; colon cancer ; lung cancer ; neoplasm ; prostate cancer ; surveillance ; treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: At a time when the population is aging and medical practices are rapidly changing, ongoing surveillance of surgical treatments for cancer is valuable for health services planning. Methods: We used data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey for patients with discharge diagnoses of lung, prostate, female breast, and colorectal cancer during 1988–95 to estimate population-based rates and numbers of inpatient surgical procedures. Results: In 1988–91, rates of lobectomy for lung cancer were significantly higher in males than females. By 1994–95, the male/female differences had largely disappeared due to increasing trends among females and decreasing trends among males. During 1988–95, surgeries on the large intestine for colorectal cancer, including right hemicolectomy and sigmoidectomy, decreased significantly, as did abdominoperineal resections of the rectum. Anterior resections of the rectum increased significantly. Radical prostatectomies for prostate cancer increased from 34,000 in 1988–89 to 104,000 in 1992–93 and then decreased to 87,000 in 1994–95; rates followed a similar pattern. Finally, the number and rates of inpatient mastectomies for female breast cancer decreased over the study period (from 219,000 to 180,000 and from 78.8 to 61.5 per 100,000, respectively). Conclusion: These trends in inpatient surgeries for the major cancers in the US probably reflect changes in disease occurrence and modified treatment recommendations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort study ; infertility ; ovarian cancer ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: It is difficult to separate the possible role of fertility drugs from underlying infertility as risk factors for ovarian cancer. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported infertility and death from ovarian cancer among married women unlikely to have been exposured to fertility drugs. Methods: Women were selected for study from the 676,526 female participants in Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II). After twelve years of follow-up, 797 deaths from ovarian cancer were observed among women with no prior history of cancer or hysterectomy and 40 years of age or older in 1967 when ovulatory stimulants were approved in the United States. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compute rate ratios (RRs) and to adjust for other potential risk factors. Results: Overall, self-reported infertility was not significantly associated with ovarian cancer mortality (adjusted rate ratio (RR) = 1.1, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-1.3). Ovarian cancer death rates among nulligravid women with self-reported infertility, however, were 40 percent higher than for nulligravid women who never tried to become pregnant (RR = 1.4, 95 percent CI = 0.9-2.4). Multigravid women who reported infertility problems were not at increased risk. Conclusions: These results suggest that infertility itself, without concomitant exposure to fertility drugs, may increase risk of fatal ovarian cancer among nulligravid women.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: cohort studies ; diet ; pancreatic cancer ; tobacco
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: Cigarette smoking is considered an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but other purported risk factors are less well established. To learn more about the epidemiology of this important cause of mortality we examined associations with a variety of possible risk factors for death from pancreatic cancer in a large, prospective study of United States adults. Methods: We used proportional hazards models to obtain adjusted estimates of relative risks (hazards ratios). During 14 years of follow-up, 3751 persons died of pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 483,109 men and 619,199 women who had no reported history of cancer at enrollment in 1982. Results: Cigarette smoking at baseline was associated with fatal pancreatic cancer among men (multivariate relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–2.4) and among women (RR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.8–2.3). A trend in risk was observed with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers at baseline. With several variables included in separate models for men and women, we found additional factors to be predictive of pancreatic cancer mortality, including family history of pancreatic cancer, black race, diabetes, and increased body mass index. History of gallstones was predictive of pancreatic cancer among men. An inverse association with vegetable consumption was observed among men, that was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that cigarette smoking is an important predictor of pancreatic cancer mortality, and identify several other factors that may contribute to increased risk.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Abortion ; breast cancer ; cohort studies ; females ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Controversy exists over the possible relationship between induced and spontaneous abortion and risk of breast cancer. Thus, the association of fatal breast cancer and spontaneous abortion was examined in a large prospective study of United States adult women. After seven years of follow-up, 1,247 cases of fatal breast cancer were observed among 579,274 women who were cancer-free at interview in 1982 and who provided complete reproductive histories. Results from Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other risk factors, showed no association between a history of spontaneous abortion and risk of fatal breast cancer (rate ratio [RR]=0.89, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.78–1.02). The RR did not increase with increasing numbers of abortions. Parous women who had a spontaneous abortion before their first term birth were not at increased risk compared with parous women with no history of spontaneous abortion (RR=0.76, CI=0.54–1.05). Women whose only pregnancy ended in a spontaneous abortion were not at increased risk compared with women who were never pregnant (RR=0.61, CI=0.27–1.38) or whose only pregnancy ended in a livebirth (RR=0.72, CI=0.32–1.65). These findings do not support an association between spontaneous abortion and fatal breast cancer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Lung cancer ; environmental tobacco smoke ; nonsmokers ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been classified as a human lung carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), based both on the chemical similarity of sidestream and mainstream smoke and on slightly higher lung cancer risk in never-smokers whose spouses smoke compared with those married to nonsmokers. We evaluated the relation between ETS and lung cancer prospectively in the US, among 114,286 female and 19,549 male never-smokers, married to smokers, compared with about 77,000 female and 77,000 male never-smokers whose spouses did not smoke. Multivariate analyses, based on 247 lung cancer deaths, controlled for age, race, diet, and occupation. Dose-response analyses were restricted to 92,222 women whose husbands provided complete information on cigarette smoking and date of marriage. Lung cancer death rates, adjusted for other factors, were 20 percent higher among women whose husbands ever smoked during the current marriage than among those married to never-smokers (relative risk [RR]=1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.8-1.6). For never-smoking men whose wives smoked, the RR was 1.1 (CI=0.6-1.8). Risk among women was similar or higher when the husband continued to smoke (RR=1.2, CI=0.8-1.8), or smoked 40 or more cigarettes per day (RR=1.9, CI=1.0-3.6), but did not increase with years of marriage to a smoker. Most CIs included the null. Although generally not statistically significant, these results agree with the EPA summary estimate that spousal smoking increases lung cancer risk by about 20 percent in never-smoking women. Even large prospective studies have limited statistical power to measure precisely the risk from ETS.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort studies ; diabetes mellitus ; pancreatic cancer ; risk factors ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer are known to be associated, but it is not known whether diabetes is a true risk factor, preceding development of the cancer, or if it is an early manifestation of the cancer. To address this uncertainty, we examined the association of pancreatic cancer mortality and reported diabetes of at least one year's duration in a large, prospective study of United States adults. The vast majority of diabetes in this cohort is likely to be non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Methods: After 12 years of follow-up, 2,953 deaths from pancreatic cancer were observed in a cohort of 1,089,586 men and women who were cancer-free at study entry in 1982. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, race, smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, body mass index (wt/ht2), and education, were used to assess associations. Results: A history of diabetes was significantly related to pancreatic cancer mortality in both men (rate ratio [RR]=1.49, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.25-1.77) and women (RR=1.51, CI=1.24-1.85). However, the strength of the association varied over the follow-up period. The death rate from pancreatic cancer was twice as high in diabetics as in non-diabetics during the second and third years of follow-up (adjusted RR=2.05, CI=1.56-2.69) but only about 40 percent higher in years nine to 12 (adjusted RR=1.38, CI=1.08-1.77). Conclusions: The small but persistent increased risk of death from pancreatic cancer, seen even when the diagnosis of diabetes preceded death by many years, supports the hypothesis that diabetes may be a true, albeit modest, risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer and metastasis reviews 13 (1994), S. 269-277 
    ISSN: 1573-7233
    Keywords: aspirin ; NSAIDs ; nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs ; cancer (esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum) ; prostaglandin ; adenomatous polyps ; rheumatoid arthritis ; diet ; meat ; fruit ; vegetables
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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