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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. Isocitrate lyase disappeared from acetate-adapted cells of Chlorella when cells were incubated in darkness with glucose. Loss of activity was particularly rapid in nitrogen-free medium and was accompanied by disappearance of the enzyme protein. 2. Loss of isocitrate lyase activity was prevented by addition of 2-deoxyglucose, glucosamine, cycloheximide or chloramphenicol. 3. The rate of loss of activity was increased by addition of 2:4-dinitrophenol but this substance prevented the loss of enzyme protein i.e it protected the inactivated enzyme from degradation. 4. In vitro studies on the digestion of isocitrate lyase protein by papain showed that the enzyme protein was protected from digestion by its substrate, isocitrate, but that inhibitors of the enzyme, namely phosphoenol pyruvate, succinate, oxaloacetate and pyruvate, provided no protection.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words  Agaricus bisporus ; Cellulase ; Modular proteins ; Exon shuffling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   The cellulase gene cel3 has been isolated from Agaricus bisporus and sequenced. The 5′-end of the cel3 transcript was determined by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection. Putative regulatory elements have been identified in the cel3 promoter and 3′-untranslated regions. The cel3 coding region is interrupted by six short introns, two of which separate the coding regions for the three modules in the CEL3 protein: cellulose-binding domain, linker region, and catalytic domain. Three of the remaining four introns are positioned in regions coding for loops between structural moieties. Intron positions are conserved between cel3 and other related cellulases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Isocitrate lyase ; Chlorella ; Enzyme inactivation ; Enzyme oxidation ; Immunoprecipitation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract When acetate-adapted cultures of Chlorella fusca were transferred to nitrogen-free medium containing glucose, isocitrate lyase activity was lost over a period of about 25 h. Using a combination of in vivo isotope labelling and immunoprecipitation with anti-isocitrate lyase IgG it was shown that: 1. The onset of loss of enzyme activity preceeded the complete cessation of enzyme synthesis. 2. Disappearance of isocitrate lyase activity was accompanied by loss of enzyme protein, without accumulation of antigenic protein distinguishable from the normal subunit polypeptide of the enzyme, as judged by SDS gel electrophoresis of immunoprecipitated samples from supernatant cell-free extracts. 3. SDS gel electrophoresis of immunoprecipitated isocitrate lyase revealed the presence of antigenic protein bands of Mr about twice that of the normal subunit polypeptide, but the appearance of these apparent dimer forms did not obviously correlate with enzyme degradation. 4. Isoelectric focusing of immunoprecipitated isocitrate lyase showed that the enzyme became progressively more oxidised during the period of its degradation in vivo. 5. By titrating crude broken cell suspensions with anti-isocitrate lyase antibody, preliminary evidence was obtained for transfer of the enzyme from the soluble fraction to an insoluble form as part of the process of disappearance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: extracellular enzyme ; fruit body ; Lentinula edodes ; mRNA ; transcriptional regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Extracellular enzyme activities of laccase and cellulase and their transcriptional regulation were investigated at various growth stages in a sawdust-based substrate forLentinula edodes. Changes of laccase and cellulase activities revealed a clear relationship with fruit body development stages. Laccase and cellulase activities were regulated at the level of gene transcription. The level of laccase mRNA was maximal at the fully colonized stage and declined during fruit body development. Cellulase mRNA began to accumulate at the pin (miniature fruit bodies) formation stage. Cellulase mRNA transcripts were maximally expressed at the veil-break stage of fruit body development. This tendency was clearer in the fruiting cultures with the wide-range-weather strains than in non-fruiting cold-weather strains. Transcription of laccase and cellulase genes was also affected by the water conditions of the sawdust-based substrate. Primordia initiation occurred when the water potential of the medium was high for rapid mRNA transcription by the mycelium.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Northern analysis showed that accumulation of Agaricus bisporus cell mRNA was regulated by two independent mechanisms: (i) induction by cellulose; and (ii) repression by glucose and other sugars, Isolated A. bisporus nuclei were transcriptionally active. Nuclei Isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium synthesized six times more cell mRNA than nuclei from glucose-grown mycelium. The start point of transcription (tsp) was identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. Putative glucose-, and cAMP-responsive elements as well as regions with homology to promoter regions of other fungal cellulase genes were detected both upstream and downstream from the tsp of the cel1 gene.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 278 (1979), S. 93-93 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Dictionary of Microbiology. By P.Singleton and D.Sainsbury. Pp. 481. (Wiley: Chichester, UK, and New York, 1978.) £17.50. IT seems to me that two sorts of useful dictionary could be compiled for microbiology. The truly comprehensive dictionary would be a large scholarly work and probably ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cell gene of Agaricus bisporus encodes a protein (CEL1) that has an architecture resembling the multi-domain fungal cellulases, although the sequence of its putative catalytic core is not matched by any other in the protein and nucleic acid data bases. The N-terminal half of the putative catalytic domain of CEL1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. The fusion protein was used to raise a CEL1-specific antibody. CEL1 was detected as an extracellular 49.8 kDa protein in A. bisporus cellulose-grown cultures, where it bound strongly to cellulose. CEL1 was neither an endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase able to hydrolyze fluorogenic cellobiosides, a β-glucosidase, a xylanase, nor a cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase. CEL1 was present in some fractions of culture fluid separated by electrophoresis which released soluble sugars from crystalline cellulose.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: The regulation of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) synthesis in a defined medium was studied using continuous culture techniques. SEA production was repressed by glucose and repression could be overcome by addition of exogenous cyclic AMP. As well as this classical catabolite repression control, addition of glucose to de-repressed steady-state cultures resulted in rapid disappearance of toxin from the medium (also mediated by loss of cyclic AMP). When the toxin dissappeared from the medium, it was taken up again by the bacteria without apparent modification.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Extracellular laccases from submerged cultures of Coriolus versicolor BKM F-116, Panus tigrinus 8/18, Phlebia radiata 79 (ATCC 64658), Phlebia tremellosa 77-51 and from cultures of Pa. tigrinus 8/18, Ph. radiata 79 and Agaricus bisporus D-649 grown on wheat straw (solid-state fermentation) were purified. All enzymes from submerged cultures had a blue colour and characteristic absorption and EPR spectra. Laccases from the solid-state cultures were yellow-brown and had no typical blue oxidase spectra and also showed atypical EPR spectra. Comparison of N-terminal amino acid sequences of purified laccases showed high homology between blue and yellow-brown laccase forms. Formation of yellow laccases as a result of binding of lignin-derived molecules by enzyme protein is proposed.
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