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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are taken up from food and can serve as biomarkers of cholesterol uptake. Serum levels are under tight genetic control. We used a genomic approach to study the molecular regulation of serum phytosterol levels and potential links to coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide association study for serum phytosterols (campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol) was conducted in a population-based sample from KORA (Cooperative Research in the Region of Augsburg) (n=1495) with subsequent replication in 2 additional samples (n=1157 and n=1760). Replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with premature CAD in a metaanalysis of 11 different samples comprising 13 764 CAD cases and 13 630 healthy controls. Genetic variants in the ATP-binding hemitransporter ABCG8 and at the blood group ABO locus were significantly associated with serum phytosterols. Effects in ABCG8 were independently related to SNPs rs4245791 and rs41360247 (combined P=1.6 x 10(-50) and 6.2 x 10(-25), respectively; n=4412). Serum campesterol was elevated 12% for each rs4245791 T-allele. The same allele was associated with 40% decreased hepatic ABCG8 mRNA expression (P=0.009). Effects at the ABO locus were related to SNP rs657152 (combined P=9.4x10(-13)). Alleles of ABCG8 and ABO associated with elevated phytosterol levels displayed significant associations with increased CAD risk (rs4245791 odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; P=2.2 x 10(-6); rs657152 odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.19; P=9.4 x 10(-6)), whereas alleles at ABCG8 associated with reduced phytosterol levels were associated with reduced CAD risk (rs41360247 odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91; P=1.3 x 10(-5)). CONCLUSION: Common variants in ABCG8 and ABO are strongly associated with serum phytosterol levels and show concordant and previously unknown associations with CAD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20529992
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study we have analysed the apolipoprotein (Apo) E polymorphism and polymorphisms of the ApoB gene, including the ApoB/Xba I and ApoB/4311 diallelic polymorphisms and a hypervariable region (HVR) situated in the 3′ region of the gene (ApoB/3′HVR), in a sample of healthy male subjects from Taiyuan (northern People's Republic of China). In comparison to Caucasian populations, in the Chinese sample, the Xba I2 allele (presence of cutting site; frequency 6.1%; and 95% confidence interval, 3.3–8.9) and the long HVR alleles (9.4%; 6.0–12.8) were rare, whereas the ApoB/4311 (Ser) allele (70.8%; 65.4–76.2) and the 34-repeat allele of the HVR (HVR34; 62.4%; 56.8–68.0) were frequent. In subjects having none, one, or two HVR34 alleles, the mean levels of plasma triglycerides were 2.32±1.44 (SD), 1.45+0.74, and 1.75±1.07 g/l, respectively (P 〈 0.007). Similar trends were observed for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. The frequencies of the ApoE alleles were similar to those reported in other populations of Asian origin; E2 (7.4%; 4.2–10.6), E3 (84.4%; 80.2–88.6), and E4 (8.2%; 5.0–11.4). Individuals carrying the E2 allele had a lower mean level of ApoB than E33 individuals: 0.87±0.16 and 1.00±0.22 g/l, respectively (P 〈 0.007). Individuals carrying the E4 allele had higher levels of ApoE than E33 individuals: 0.140±0.084 and 0.094±0.052 g/l, respectively (P 〈 0.004); similar trends were observed for VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. The ApoB/ HVR34 and ApoE/E4 polymorphisms accounted for 10% to 15% of the variability of the plasma levels of VLDL cholesterol, ApoE, triglycerides, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. Several lipid variables appeared to be favourably affected by specific forms of ApoB and ApoE that are particularly frequent in this Chinese population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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