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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Genome mapping ; Stripe rust ; Leaf rust ; BYDV ; Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Stripe rust, leaf rust, and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L). Using 94 doubled-haploid lines (DH) from the cross of Shyri x Galena, multiple disease phenotype datasets, and a 99-marker linkage map, we determined the number, genome location, and effects of genes conferring resistance to these diseases. We also mapped Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism (RGAP) loci, based on degenerate motifs of cloned disease resistance genes, in the same population. Leaf rust resistance was determined by a single gene on chromosome 1 (7H). QTLs on chromosomes 2 (2H), 3 (3H), 5 (1H), and 6 (6H) were the principal determinants of resistance to stripe rust. Two- locus QTL interactions were significant determinants of resistance to this disease. Resistance to the MAV and PAV serotypes of BYDV was determined by coincident QTLs on chromosomes 1 (7H), 4 (4H), and 5 (1H). QTL interactions were not significant for BYDV resistance. The associations of molecular markers with qualitative and quantitative disease resistance loci will be a useful information for marker-assisted selection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words QTL ; AFLP ; Marker-assisted selection ; Barley ; Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Genome-analysis tools are useful for dissecting complex phenotypes and manipulating determinants of these phenotypes in breeding programs. Quantitative trait locus (QTL)-analysis tools were used to map QTLs conferring adult plant resistance to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) in barley. The resistance QTLs were introgressed into a genetic background unrelated to the mapping population with one cycle of marker-assisted backcrossing. Doubled-haploid lines were derived from selected backcross lines, phenotyped for stripe-rust resistance, and genotyped with an array of molecular markers. The resistance QTLs that were introgressed were significant determinants of resistance in the new genetic background. Additional resistance QTLs were also detected. The susceptible parent contributed resistance alleles at two of these new QTLs. We hypothesize that favorable alleles were fixed at these new QTLs in the original mapping population. Genetic background may, therefore, have an important role in QTL-transfer experiments. A breeding system is described that integrates single-copy and multiplex markers with confirmation of the target phenotype in doubled-haploid lines phenotyped in field tests. This approach may be useful for simultaneously producing agronomically useful germplasm and contributing to an understanding of quantitatively inherited traits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Fusarium head blight (FHB) ; QTL mapping ; Plant architecture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Fusarium head blight (FHB), an important disease of barley in many areas of the world, causes losses in grain yield and quality. Deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin residues, produced by the primary pathogen Fusarium graminearum, pose potential health risks. Barley producers may not be able to profitably market FHB-infected barley, even though it has a low DON level. Three types of FHB resistance have been described in wheat: Type I (penetration), Type II (spread), and Type III (mycotoxin degradation). We describe putative measures of these three types of resistance in barley. In wheat, the three resistance mechanisms show quantitative inheritance. Accordingly, to study FHB resistance in barley, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to determine the number, genome location, and effects of QTLs associated with Type-I and -II resistance and the concentration of DON in the grain. We also mapped QTLs for plant height, heading date, and morphological attributes of the inflorescence (seeds per inflorescence, inflorescence density, and lateral floret size). QTL analyses were based on a mapping population of F1-derived doubled-haploid (DH) lines from the cross of the two-rowed genotypes Gobernadora and CMB643, a linkage map constructed with RFLP marker loci, and field evaluations of the three types of FHB resistance performed in China, Mexico, and two environments in North Dakota, USA. Resistance QTLs were detected in six of the seven linkage groups. Alternate favorable alleles were found at the same loci when different inoculation techniques were used to measure Type-I resistance. The largest-effect resistance QTL (for Type-II resistance) was mapped in the centromeric region of chromosome 2. All but two of the resistance QTLs coincided with QTLs determining morphological attributes of the inflorescence and/or plant height. Additional experiments are needed to determine if these coincident QTLs are due to linkage or pleiotropy and to more clearly define the biological basis of the FHB resistance QTLs. Plant architecture should be considered in FHB resistance breeding efforts, particularly those directed at resistance QTL introgression and/or pyramiding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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