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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: subtilisin BPN′ ; proenzyme ; protein folding ; protein crystallography ; thermal stability ; calcium binding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The three-dimensional structure of a subtilisin BPN′ construct that was produced and folded without its prodomain shows the tertiary structure is nearly identical to the wild-type enzyme and not a folding intermediate. The subtilisin BPN′ variant, Sbt70, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli without the prodomain, the 77-residue N-terminal domain that catalyzes the folding of the enzyme into its native tertiary structure. Sbt70 has the high-affinity calcium-binding loop, residues 75 to 83, deleted. Such calcium-independent forms of subtilisin BPN′ refold independently while retaining high levels of activity [Bryan et al., Biochemistry, 31:4937-4945, 1992]. Sbt70 has, in addition, seven stabilizing mutations, K43N, M50F, A73L, Q206V, Y217K, N218S, Q271E, and the active site serine has been replaced with alanine to prevent autolysis. The purified Sbt70 folded spontaneously without the prodomain and crystallized at room temperature. Crystals of Sbt70 belong to space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a = 53.5 Å, b = 60.3 Å, and c = 83.4 Å. Comparison of the refined structure with other high-resolution structures of subtilisin BPN′ establishes that the conformation of Sbt70 is essentially the same as that previously determined for other calcium-independent forms and that of other wild-type subtilisin BPN′ structures, all folded in the presence of the prodomain. These findings confirm the results of previous solution studies that showed subtilisin BPN′ can be refolded into a native conformation without the presence of the prodomain [Bryan et al., Biochemistry 31:4937-4945, 1992]. The structure analysis also provides the first descriptions of four stabilizing mutations, K43N, A73L, Q206V, and Q271E, and provides details of the interaction between the enzyme and the Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu tetrapeptide found in the active-site cleft. Proteins 31:21-32, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: antibody ; antitumor ; single chain Fv ; variable domains ; X-ray crystallography ; protein structure ; protein stability ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A recombinant Fv construct of the B1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LewisY-related carbohydrate epitope on human carcinoma cells has been prepared. The Fv is composed of the polypeptide chains of the VH and VL domains expressed independently and isolated as inclusion bodies. The Fv is prepared by combining and refolding equimolar amounts of guanidine chloride solubilized inclusion bodies. The Fv is stabilized by an engineered interchain disulfide bridge between residues VL100 and VH44. This construct has a similar binding affinity as that of the single-chain construct (Benhar and Pastan, Clin. Cancer Res. 1:1023-1029, 1995). The B1 disulfide-stabilized Fv (B1dsFv) crystallizes in space group P6122 with the unit cell parameters a = b = 80.1 Å, and c = 138.1 Å. The crystal structure of the B1dsFv has been determined at 2.1-Å resolution using the molecular replacement technique. The final structure has a crystallographic R-value of 0.187 with a root mean square deviation in bond distance of 0.014 Å and in bond angle of 2.74°. Comparisons of the B1dsFv structure with known structures of Fv regions of other immunoglobulin fragments shows closely related secondary and tertiary structures. The antigen combining site of B1dsFv is a deep depression 10-Å wide and 17-Å long with the walls of the depression composed of residues, many of which are tyrosines, from complementarity determining regions L1, L3, H1, H2, and H3. Model building studies indicate that the LewisY tetrasaccharide, Fuc-Gal-Nag-Fuc, can be accommodated in the antigen combining site in a manner consistent with the epitope predicted in earlier biochemical studies (Pastan, Lovelace, Gallo, Rutherford, Magnani, and Willingham, Cancer Res. 51:3781-3787, 1991). Thus, the engineered disulfide bridge appears to cause little, if any, distortion in the Fv structure, making it an effective substitute for the B1 Fab. Proteins 31:128-138, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase, an enzyme of the aromatic amino acids biosynthetic pathway, was determined to 1.30 Å resolution. The structure of the homotrimer was determined by molecular replacement using orthorhombic crystals of space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 52.2, b = 83.8, c = 86.0 Å. The ABC trimer of the monoclinic crystal structure [Chook et al. (1994), J. Mol. Biol. 240, 476–500] was used as the starting model. The final coordinates are composed of three complete polypeptide chains of 127 amino-acid residues. In addition, there are nine sulfate ions, five glycerol molecules and 424 water molecules clearly visible in the structure. This structure was refined with aniosotropic temperature factors, has excellent geometry and a crystallographic R factor of 0.169 with an Rfree of 0.236. The three active sites of the macromolecule are at the subunit interfaces, with residues from two subunits contributing to each site. This orthorhombic crystal form was grown using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant; glycerol was used as a cryoprotectant during data collection. A glycerol molecule and sulfate ion in each of the active sites was found mimicking a transition-state analog. In this structure, the C-terminal tails of the subunits of the trimer are hydrogen bonded to residues of the active site of neighboring trimers in the crystal and thus cross-link the molecules in the crystal lattice.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 56 (2000), S. 996-1001 
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Quality data collection for macromolecular cryocrystallography requires suppressing the formation of crystalline or microcrystalline ice that may result from flash-freezing crystals. Described here is the use of lithium formate, lithium chloride and other highly soluble salts for forming ice-ring-free aqueous glasses upon cooling from ambient temperature to 100 K. These cryosalts are a new class of cryoprotectants that are shown to be effective with a variety of commonly used crystallization solutions and with proteins crystallized under different conditions. The influence of cryosalts on crystal mosaicity and diffraction resolution is comparable with or superior to traditional organic cryoprotectants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structures of two isoforms of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from bovine retina overexpressed in Escherischia coli have been determined to 2.4 Å resolution. Both the isoforms, NBR-A and NBR-B, are hexameric and the fold of the monomer is in agreement with NDP-kinase structures from other biological sources. Although the polypeptide chains of the two isoforms differ by only two residues, they crystallize in different space groups. NBR-A crystallizes in space group P212121 with an entire hexamer in the asymmetric unit, while NBR-B crystallizes in space group P43212 with a trimer in the asymmetric unit. The highly conserved nucleotide-binding site observed in other nucleoside diphosphate kinase structures is also observed here. Both NBR-A and NBR-B were crystallized in the presence of cGMP. The nucleotide is bound with the base in the anti conformation. The NBR-A active site contained both cGMP and GDP each bound at half occupancy. Presumably, NBR-A had retained GDP (or GTP) from the purification process. The NBR-B active site contained only cGMP.
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