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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; INFECTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; REDUCED RISK ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; DIET ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CARDIA ; EPIC ; ESOPHAGUS ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; STOMACH-CANCER ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; DIGESTIVE-TRACT ; gastric cancer ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; methods ; PROFILES ; prospective ; EVALUATE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; Helicobacter pylori ; cardia cancer ; socioeconomic position
    Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the association of socioeconomic position with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and stomach. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort comprises about 520000 participants mostly aged 35-70 years. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment. After an average follow-up of 6.5 years, 268 cases with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 56 of the oesophagus were confirmed. We examined the effect of socioeconomic position on cancer risk by means of educational data and a computed Relative Index of Inequality (RII). In a nested case-control study, adjustment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was performed. Results Higher education was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer [vs lowest level of education, hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% Confidence intervals (CI): 0.43-0.981. This effect was more pronounced for cancer of the cardia (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89) as compared to non-cardia gastric cancer (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36-1.22). Additionally, the inverse association of educational level and gastric cancer was stronger for cases with intestinal (extreme categories, HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.44) rather than diffuse histological subtype (extreme categories, HR: 0.71 95% CI: 0.37-1.40). In the nested case-control study, inverse but statistically non-significant associations were found after additional adjustment for H. pylori infection [highest vs lowest level of education: Odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-1.18]. Educational level was non-significantly, inversely associated with carcinoma of the oesophagus. Conclusion A higher socioeconomic position was associated with a reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, which was strongest for cardia cancer or intestinal histological subtype, suggesting different risk profiles according to educational level. These effects appear to be explained only partially by established risk factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17227779
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  • 2
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; score ; PATTERNS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; FISH ; REGION ; DIET ; FAT ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; PRODUCTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; ADIPOSITY ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; BMI ; FOODS ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; DAIRY-PRODUCTS ; EPIC-OXFORD PARTICIPANTS ; WEIGHT-LOSS ; Abdominal ; ABDOMINAL ADIPOSITY ; ELDERLY-PEOPLE ; HEALTH-STATUS ; TO-HIP RATIO
    Abstract: Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated: saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women. J. Nutr. 139: 1728-1737, 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19571036
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  • 3
  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; CONTRAST ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; PATTERNS ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; REGION ; FRANCE ; REGIONS ; POPULATIONS ; NETHERLANDS ; FUTURE ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; nutrient intake ; VITAMIN-E ; RETINOL ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; SCIENCE ; methods ; dietary patterns ; prospective ; vitamin D ; VITAMIN-D ; ERRORS ; RATIONALE ; Vitamin E ; Exposure assessment
    Abstract: Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries. J. Nutr. 140: 1280-1286, 2010
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20484545
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; BODY-WEIGHT ; WOMEN ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; MIDDLE-AGED WOMEN ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; dietary patterns ; metabolic syndrome ; GAIN ; EPIC-OXFORD ; INTERVENTION TRIAL
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. RESULTS: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were 〉50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22170373
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood. METHODS: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression. RESULTS: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27197530
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; BLOOD ; CELL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; HISTORY ; LONG-TERM ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SAMPLES ; HEART ; RISK-FACTORS ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; FREQUENCIES ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; COMPONENT ; DATABASE ; PRESSURE ; DIET ; nutrition ; SERUM ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; fat distribution ; development ; EVENTS ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; prospective ; prospective study ; DIETARY ASSESSMENT METHODS ; RISK-FACTOR ; study protocol ; CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE ; EPIC heart ; HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE ; NORFOLK COHORT
    Abstract: EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the separate and combined influences of lifestyle ( especially dietary), environmental, metabolic and genetic factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases by making best possible use of the unusually informative database and biological samples in EPIC. Between 1992 and 2000, 519,978 participants ( 366,521 women and 153,457 men, mostly aged 35 - 70 years) in 23 centres in 10 European countries commenced follow-up for causespecific mortality, cancer incidence and major cardiovascular morbidity. Dietary information was collected with quantitative questionnaires or semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, including a 24-h dietary recall sub-study to help calibrate the dietary measurements. Information was collected on physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, occupational history, socio-economic status, and history of previous illnesses. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure recordings were made in the majority of participants. Blood samples were taken from 385,747 individuals, from which plasma, serum, red cells, and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage. By 2004, an estimated 10,000 incident fatal and non-fatal coronary and stroke events had been recorded. The first cycle of EPIC-Heart analyses will assess associations of coronary mortality with several prominent dietary hypotheses and with established cardiovascular risk factors. Subsequent analyses will extend this approach to non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes and to further dietary, biochemical and genetic factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17295097
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; evaluation ; Germany ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; incidence ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; FREQUENCIES ; NO ; smoking ; cancer risk ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; MULTIVARIATE ; DIET ; INDIVIDUALS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; LIFE-STYLE ; BETA-CAROTENE ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ; ONCOLOGY ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; INCREASE ; NONSMOKING WOMEN ; VITAMIN-C ; pooled analysis ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; comparison ; ERROR ; CHINESE WOMEN ; DIETARY CAROTENOIDS
    Abstract: The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals participating in EPIC was collected. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,126 lung cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were applied for statistical evaluation. In the whole study population, fruit consumption was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk while no association was found for vegetable consumption. In current smokers, however, lung cancer risk significantly decreased with higher vegetable consumption; this association became more pronounced after calibration, the hazard ratio (HR) being 0.78 (95% CI 0.620.98) per 100 g increase in daily vegetable consumption. In comparison, the HR per 100 g fruit was 0.92 (0.85-0.99) in the entire cohort and 0.90 (0.81-0.99) in smokers. Exclusion of cases diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up strengthened these associations, the HR being 0.71 (0.55-0.94) for vegetables (smokers) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) for fruit (entire cohort). Cancer incidence decreased with higher consumption of apples and pears (entire cohort) as well as root vegetables (smokers). In addition to an overall inverse association with fruit intake, the results of this evaluation add evidence for a significant inverse association of vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence in smokers. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17487840
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; BODY-WEIGHT ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; EPIC ; nutrition ; EUROPE ; LEISURE-TIME ; physical activity ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; fat distribution ; ADIPOSITY ; OVERWEIGHT ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; BMI ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; ENERGY-EXPENDITURE ; BODY-COMPOSITION ; INVESTIGATE ; cross-sectional analysis ; OXFORD PARTICIPANTS ; WEIGHT-GAIN
    Abstract: Objectives: Cross-sectional data suggest a strong association between low levels of physical activity and obesity. The EPIC-PANACEA ( European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating out of home And obesity) project was designed to investigate the associations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference based on individual data collected across nine European countries. Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), 519 931 volunteers were recruited between 1992 and 2000, of whom 405 819 had data on main variables of interest. Height, body weight and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures. Physical activity was assessed using a validated four-category index reflecting a self-reported usual activity during work and leisure time. The associations between physical activity and BMI and waist circumference were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, adjusted for age, total energy intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption and educational level. Results: A total of 125 629 men and 280 190 women with a mean age of 52.9 (s.d. 9.7) and 51.5 (s.d. 10.0) years, respectively were included. The mean BMI was 26.6 kg/m(2) (s.d. 3.6) in men and 25.0 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.5) in women. Fifty percent of men and 30% of women were categorized as being active or moderately active. A one-category difference in the physical activity index was inversely associated with a difference of 0.18 kg/m(2) in the mean BMI (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.11, 0.24) and 1.04-cm (95% CI 0.82, 1.26) difference in waist circumference in men. The equivalent figures for women were 0.31 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.23, 0.38) and 0.90 cm ( 95% CI 0.71, 1.08), respectively. Conclusions: Physical activity is inversely associated with both BMI and waist circumference across nine European countries. Although we cannot interpret the association causally, our results were observed in a large and diverse cohort independently from many potential confounders
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19223851
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