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  • 1
    Keywords: tumor ; Germany ; THERAPY ; CT ; imaging ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; VISUALIZATION ; VOLUME ; NEW-YORK ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; computed tomography ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; PATIENT ; kidney ; MRI ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; METASTASIS ; chemotherapy ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; CHILDREN ; nuclear medicine ; MANAGEMENT ; PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY ; radiology ; ONCOLOGY ; CHILDHOOD ; THERAPIES ; monitoring ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; EXTENT ; CHILD ; pediatric ; BONE METASTASES ; nephroblastoma ; SIOP ; MEDICINE ; three-dimensional ; INTERNATIONAL-SOCIETY ; PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY ; IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS ; INTRAVASCULAR EXTENSION ; UNILATERAL WILMS-TUMOR
    Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presents the main diagnostic tool for differentiation and staging of renal tumors in childhood. Nephroblastoma is the most common malignant tumor in children. Radiological findings play an important role in therapy study trials of SIOP (International Society of Pediatric Oncology), especially for indicating preoperative chemotherapy. In the past few years MRI has gained great importance in imaging of nephroblastoma and has replaced computed tomography (CT). The aim of this review is to present the diagnostic possibilities of MRI in relation to the requirements of therapy studies. For nephroblastoma, MRI provides important information about tumor extent and distant metastasis. A special focus of MRI in distant staging is venous extent of the tumor into the inferior vena cava. In addition, MRI has an important role in monitoring chemotherapy and in preoperative planning by volume rendering and three-dimensional postprocessing
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18193429
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  • 2
    Keywords: evaluation ; IMAGES ; SYSTEM ; PATIENT ; renal function ; CONTRAST AGENT ; MR ; RAT-KIDNEY ; SEQUENCE ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; ECHO ; SCINTIGRAPHY ; intravenous ; MR imaging ; KIDNEY-FUNCTION ; DIURESIS RENOGRAPHY ; DYNAMIC GD-DTPA ; GADOLINIUM-DTPA COMPLEX ; GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION ; PARTIAL URETERAL OBSTRUCTION ; radioisotope renography ; urinary tract obstruction ; URINARY-TRACT OBSTRUCTION ; urodynamics
    Abstract: Renal function evaluation in the pediatric patient is generally based on scintigraphic examinations where a baseline gamma- camera renography is used to determine single kidney function, and diuresis renography is obtained to assess urinary drainage from the pelvicalyceal system. Magnetic resonance imaging also permits the evaluation of renal functional processes using fast dynamic sequences. Principally, an agent cleared by renal excretion is intravenously injected and its cortical uptake, parenchymal transport, and eventually its urinary excretion are followed with serial images. Different approaches have been presented most of which are based on T1-weighted gradient- recalled echo sequences with short TR and TE and a low flip angle obtained after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA or Gd- DOTA. These techniques permit renal functional assessment using different qualitative and quantitative parameters; however, most of these methods are not suitable for the evaluation of urinary tract dilatation in infants and children. For the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital urinary tract obstruction and malformation a technique was developed which permits quantitative determination of single kidney function, in addition to evaluating urinary excretion disturbances analogous to that possible with scintigraphy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12695825
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  • 3
    Keywords: Germany ; renal ; renal function ; RENAL-FUNCTION ; MR ; CHILDREN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 4
    Keywords: tumor ; evaluation ; Germany ; PERFUSION ; CT ; DIAGNOSIS ; imaging ; INFORMATION ; SYSTEM ; VISUALIZATION ; VOLUME ; liver ; SITE ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; SURGERY ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; primary ; DYNAMICS ; MR ; MRI ; AGE ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; CHILDREN ; CHILDHOOD ; monitoring ; SOLID TUMORS ; ENHANCEMENT ; methods ; technique ; CHILD ; AGREEMENT ; pediatric ; nephroblastoma ; MEDIA ; three-dimensional ; 3D imaging ; discussion ; pediatrics ; interactive
    Abstract: Introduction: 3D imaging and surgical planning for the treatment of embryonal tumors using different techniques (CT versus MRI) are presently under discussion. Up to now, the main focus has been on visualizing the anatomy. Contrast medium dynamics have not been taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to establish the technical means of integrating the 3D images from functional MRI data into the anatomical images and to determine clinical applications for this approach. Material and Methods: In 11 patients (mean age: 2.4 years) with solid tumors, 26 diagnostic MRI examinations were performed for primary diagnosis, treatment monitoring, or as part of the surgical planning. Seven children presented with neuroblastomas, three with Wilms' tumor, and one with advanced bilateral nephroblastomatosis. The MRI data were acquired using a 1.5-T system. For post-processing, we used volume rendering software, including an evaluation of perfusion. By using color-coded parametric images and integrating functional information, perfusion could be visualized and used for interactive surgical planning. Macroscopic and microscopic sections served as the gold standard for assessing tissue viability. Results: We were able to integrate the dynamic data into the anatomical images for all patients. A good agreement was found between the results of surgical planning, including perfusion mapping, with the surgical site, subsequently produced macroscopic sections and the results of random microscopic examinations. Conclusions: Perfusion mapping using color-coded parametric images of pediatric abdominal tumors extends the diagnostic techniques currently available. We provide first proof of the possibility of integrating functional information into 3D MR images in children. Monitoring the treatment of nephroblastoma and surgical planning for pediatric embryonal tumors represent potential applications of this technique
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18302062
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0167-0115
    Keywords: Anxiety ; Behavior ; Black-and-white box test ; CP-96,345 ; NK-1 receptor ; RP 67580 ; Sedation ; Substance P
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0167-0115
    Keywords: Aqueous humor ; Indomethacin ; Prostaglandin ; Substance P ; Surgical miosis ; Timolol
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Secretoneurin ; Noradrenaline ; Large dense core vesicles ; Calcium channel blockers ; Secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Secretoneurin is a newly discovered peptide found in high concentrations in brain. We have studied the release of secretoneurin and noradrenaline from superfused hypothalamic slices from rat brain. Both electrical stimulation and potassium induced depolarisation released secretoneurin and noradrenaline from these slices in a calcium-dependent manner. Electrical stimulation caused a preferential release of noradrenaline when compared to the secretion elicited by high potassium. The time course of secretoneurin release was more protracted than that of noradrenaline. The calcium channel blocker ω-conotoxin inhibited only the electrically induced release of noradrenaline, whereas nifedipine inhibited only that of secretoneurin. These results establish that secretoneurin is secreted from neurons. Inhibition of this release by nifedipine is consistent with the concept that secretion from large dense core vesicles occurs at sites different from that of small vesicles and depends on calcium influx via L-type calcium channels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words: Secretoneurin – Noradrenaline – Large dense core vesicles – Calcium channel blockers – Secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Secretoneurin is a newly discovered peptide found in high concentrations in brain. We have studied the release of secretoneurin and noradrenaline from superfused hypothalamic slices from rat brain. Both electrical stimulation and potassium induced depolarisation released secretoneurin and noradrenaline from these slices in a calcium-dependent manner. Electrical stimulation caused a preferential release of noradrenaline when compared to the secretion elicited by high potassium. The time course of secretoneurin release was more protracted than that of noradrenaline. The calcium channel blocker ω-conotoxin inhibited only the electrically induced release of noradrenaline, whereas nifedipine inhibited only that of secretoneurin. These results establish that secretoneurin is secreted from neurons. Inhibition of this release by nifedipine is consistent with the concept that secretion from large dense core vesicles occurs at sites different from that of small vesicles and depends on calcium influx via L-type calcium channels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Purpose: To detect the levels of the sensory peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in aqueous humor of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy and to compare them with those of uninflamed eyes (cataract and uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment). Materials and methods: Using a highly specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay the concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide was detected in fresh samples of aqueous humor obtained via paracentesis. Furthermore, calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivities were characterized by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: The mean level of calcitonin gene-related peptide was 6.11 fmol/ml in cataract controls and 14.77 fmol/ml in uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In the cataract group, 9 of 18 cases were below the detection limit and in the retinal detachment group, 5 of 16. In proliferative vitreoretinopathy, the peptide averaged 76.92 fmol/ml and none of the samples was below the detection limit. High-pressure liquid chromatography revealed one major peak corresponding to synthetic calcitonin gene-related peptide. Conclusion: In recent studies, we found elevated levels of the sensory peptide substance P in aqueous humor of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. This fact and the present result, the elevation of calcitonin gene-related peptide in aqueous humor of eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, clearly point to an involvement of sensory peptides in the pathobiology of the disease. The source of the elevation is not clear, but we hypothesize that it originates from a neurogenic mechanism, i.e. an acceleration of the peptides by their enhanced release from the iris/ciliary body complex subsequent to sensitization of sensory neurons, thus representing a very interesting epiphenomenon of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Our results constitute novel aspects in the pathophysiological concept of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and extend the knowledge about the pathobiology of the disease process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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