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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Metabolites of toluene, xylene, styrene ; Benzoic, 3-and 4-methyl-benzoic acids ; Mandelic acid ; High performance gas chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In der Arbeit wird die Gesamtbestimmung von Benzoesäure, 3-und 4-Methylbenzoesäure sowie Mandelsäure im Harn mit der Gaschromatographie (G.C.) dargestellt. Das analytische Verfahren umfaßt die Addition des inneren Standards β-Naphthol zur Harnprobe, die alkalische Hydrolyse, die Harnextraktion mit Äthyläther, das Lösungsmittelabdämpfen sowie die Silylierung der trockenen Rückstände (von Säuren) mit dem Gemisch Silyl-8-Pyridin (1 ∶ 1). Die Ergebnisse werden anhand der Relationen aus den Peakflächen der zu bestimmenden Metaboliten und dem inneren Standard (Standardabweichung) berechnet. Die Genauigkeit der erarbeiteten Methode beträgt bei der Bestimmung der genannten Säuren ±8%.
    Notes: Abstract The determination of benzoic, 3-and 4-methylbenzoic, and mandelic acids in urine by gas chromatography (G.C.) is presented. The analytical procedure includes: addition of internal standard (β-naphthol), alkaline hydrolysis, ethyl ether extraction, evaporation of the solvent, and silylation of acids with Silyl-8 in pyridine (1∶1). The results are calculated from ratios of the internal standard and determined metabolites peak surface areas. The coefficient of variation of the method in determination of mentioned acids is ±8%.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: GC determination ; Thiodiglycolic acid ; Vinyl chloride metabolite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The determination of thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) in urine by gas chromatography (GC) is described. The analytical procedure includes addition of internal standard (o-phthalic acid), ethyl acetate extraction, evaporation of the solvent and silylation of TDGA with N-trimethylsilyldiethylamine in pyridine (1 ∶ 1). The results are calculated from the ratio of TDGA and internal standard peak heights. The detection limit of the method is 10 mg/l and the coefficient of variation is ±5%.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Occupational exposure ; Renal function ; Cumulative exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Investigations were carried out in an alkaline battery factory. The study group consisted of 102 persons and the control group of 85 persons. Cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and cadmium in urine (Cd-U), as well as β2-microglobulin (B2-M), retinol binding protein (RBP), amino acids in urine were determined. Exposure to cadmium was high; Cd-B and Cd-U concentrations were higher than recommended, 10 gmg/l and 10 gmg/g creat. in 65% and 56% of workers, respectively. Excretion of B2-M and RBP in urine was higher than the accepted upper limits of 380 and 130 I μg/g creat. in about 20% of the workers. A significant correlation was observed between: log Cd-U log Cd-B (r = 0.85), log B2-M log RBP (r = 0.66), log Cd-U · log B2- M (r = 0.52), and log Cd-U · log RBP (r = 0.55). To evaluate the admissible period of occupational exposure to cadmium, an integrated exposure index (Cd-B × years of exposure) is proposed. According to the dose-response relationship, an increase of low molecular protein excretion in urine can be expected in 10% of the cases at Cd-U amounting to 10 to 15 μg/g creat. and Cd-B × years of about 300 to 400.
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