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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Mycorrhizal fungi ; Lignin degradation ; Litter decomposition ; Lignocellulose degradation ; 14C-DHP degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different species of known ecto-mycorrhizal fungi: Cenococcum geophilum, Amanita muscaria, Tricholoma aurantium, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon roseolus were studied for their ability to metabolize the major components of plant cell walls. All strains were able to decompose 14C-labelled plant lignin, 14C-lignocellulose and 14C-DHP-lignin at a rate which was lower than the one observed for the known white rot fungi Heterobasidion annosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Also 14C-(U)-holocellulose was relatively less degradable for the mycorrhizal fungi than for the white rotters. On the other hand, aromatic monomers like 14C-vanillic acid were decomposed to a much higher extent by two species of mycorrhizal fungi compared to the activity observed for Heterobasidion annosum. The results of the experiments reveal that these stains of mycorrhizal fungi are well able to utilize the major components of plant material and thus can contribute to litter decomposition in the forest floor.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurofilaments, part of the cytoskeletal network, and neuron specific enolase, a major enzyme in glycolysis, are both present in central and peripheral neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100, on the other hand, are soluble proteins which are found exclusively in the supportive cells of the nervous system, i.e. the glial cells. Examination was made, using immunocytochemistry, of all main areas of the gastrointestinal tract of three mammalian species, rat, pig and man. By applying serial tissue sectioning, it was possible to study the relative occurrences of the two neuronal markers in the same cell bodies and to examine the relationships of the neurons with the glial cells as revealed by the antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Both neurofilaments and neuron specific enolase were localised to an extensive system of enteric nerves, with the level of neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity showing greater variability than that observed using antibodies to neurofilaments. Comparison of the occurrence of neuron specific enolase and neurofilament immunoreactivity in serially sectioned neuronal cell bodies revealed that a minor population stained only with antibodies to neurofilaments. The equivocal or absent neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity in some perikarya may reflect variations in functional status within the nervous system. Glial fibrillary acidic protein- and S-100-immunoreactivities were confined to glial cells which, in this normal tissue, were always in close association with the neurons. In conclusion, neurofilament-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-and S-100-immunostaining can be used to reveal the enteric nervous system and its supportive cells in these three mammals. The combined use of all these neuronal and non-neuronal markers may be helpful in delineating the enteric nervous system and assessing its morphological and functional status.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to neurofilament proteins, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 have been used to demonstrate nerves, ganglion cells and the supportive glial system of the innervation of various organs. The female genitalia, the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the pancreas, the heart and the skin of several mammalian species, including rat, mouse, guinea pig, cat, pig, monkey and man were fixed in parabenzoquinone and portions of each organ were snap frozen. Serial or free-floating thick cryostat sections were stained using indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. In addition, the newly described and highly sensitive immunogold-silver staining technique was used on Bouin's-fixed and wax-embedded tissues. Antibodies to neurofilament proteins seemed to react with neuronal structures in all the species studied. Alternately stained serial sections showed a similar distribution of neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase-containing nerves. Neuron-specific enolase staining had a diffuse appearance and was found to be highly variable, indicating that the neuron-specific enolase content might be related to the physiological state of the nerves and ganglion cells, whereas antibodies to neurofilament protein gave a consistently intense and very clear picture of the ganglion cells and nerve fibres. Antibodies to S-100 stained supportive elements of the peripheral nervous system in all tissues examined, whereas antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein were more selective.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cortico-pulvinar neurons ; Morphology ; Laminar distribution ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using autoradiography and the horseradish peroxidase method, the morphology and laminar distribution of cortico-pulvinar neurons and the reciprocity of connections between pulvinar and cortex were examined in five Rhesus monkeys which had received medial, lateral and inferior pulvinar nucleus injections of both tritiated amino acids and horseradish peroxidase. Cortico-pulvinar neurons were identified in one heterotypical cortical area (area 17) and in many homotypical areas in frontal (areas 45, 46, 11, 12), parietal (5, 7), occipital (18, 19) and temporal (20, 21, 22) lobes. The cortico-pulvinar neurons were pyramidal in shape and ranged in size from small to large. In heterotypical cortex they were found in layers V and VI whereas in area 17 they were found only in layer Vb. Reciprocal connections between pulvinar and cortex were a feature of homotypical but not heterotypical cortex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Phosphorylated high molecular weight neurofilament ; Motor neuron ; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ; Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease ; X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lower motor neurons of the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease (WH), X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy (X-BSNP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), all of which were known to involve the lower motor neurons, were immunohistochemically examined by using a monoclonal antibody (Ta-51) specific to phosphorylated epitopes of high molecular weight subunits of neurofilaments. The incidence of Ta-51-positive neurons was significantly increased in ALS, WH and MSA, but not in X-BSNP. Ta-51-positive neurons showed a wide variety of morphological appearances, including neurons with normal appearance, central chromatolysis, simple atrophy and neurons containing massive neurofilamentous accumulation. In aged-control cases, similar Ta-51-positive neurons were observed, although to a much lesser extent. In ALS, spheroids and globules, which were strongly positive for Ta-51, were also significantly increased. Ta-51-positive motor neurons, spheroids and globules appeared in proportional to the number of remaining large motor neurons in ALS.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words: Diffuse Lewy Body Disease – Hippocampus – Neurites – Neurofilament – Ubiquitin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in the CA2/3 region of the hippocampus are characteristic of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD). The origin of dystrophic CA2/3 neurites is unknown, but their extent correlates with the number of cortical Lewy bodies (LBs). To examine the molecular composition of these lesions, hippocampal sections were obtained at postmortem from cases of DLBD, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The tissue samples were fixed in a variety of fixatives and immunostained with antibodies to ubiquitin, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (PGP9.5), neurofilament protein subunits, tau protein, paired helical filaments and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In addition to being ubiquitin positive, both cortical LBs and CA2/3 dystrophic neurites were positive with a neurofilament monoclonal antibody (RM032) and PGP9.5; however, fewer lesions were detected with these antibodies compared to ubiquitin immunocytochemistry. The dystrophic CA2/3 neurites were not stained with antibodies to tau proteins, paired helical filaments or TH. Absence of TH immunoreactivity suggests that CA2/3 neuritic processes are not derived from brain stem dopaminergic afferents to the hippocampus. Since CA2/3 neurites are immunologically similar to cortical LB, the pathogenesis of these lesions may be similar. Characterization of dystrophic CA2/3 neurites and cortical LBs may clarify how these lesions contribute to the emergence of dementia in DLBD.
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  • 8
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    Acta neuropathologica 92 (1996), S. 217-231 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Neuropathology ; Schizophrenia ; Postmortem ; Neurodevelopment ; Neurdegenerative
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The search for the defining neuropathology of schizophrenia continues to be one of the highest priority areas of research into this severely debilitating and common neuropsychiatric disorder. While lesions that are diagnostic of the disorder have not yet been identified, recent efforts employing molecule-specific probes and quantitative methods of analysis have enumerated many potentially important findings in the brains of patients with schizophrenia that warrant confirmation and elucidation. In this review, the major findings of six broad areas of neuropathological investigation are summarized and discussed. While substantial controversy exists in all areas, in sum: (1) diagnostic neuropathological investigations find only assorted and nonspecific abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenics that are likely to be representative of lesions found in age-compatible control groups; (2) morphometric studies of gross structures generally confirm the clinical in vivo neuroimaging findings of enlarged ventricles, decreased size of ventromedial temporal lobe structures, and decreased parahippocampal cortical thickness; (3) morphometric microscopy studies find frequent alterations in neuron density and decreased neuron size in limbic, temporal, and frontal regions; (4) investigations of connectivity are at an early stage but describe abnormal dendritic spine densities in the cortex, various changes in synaptic vesicle protein expression in limbic, temporal, and frontal cortices, and alterations in glutamatergic, catecholaminergic, and intrinsic innervation in anterior cingulate cortex – together, these findings suggest a “miswiring” in the schizophrenic brain; (5) investigations of aberrant neurodevelopment in schizophrenia describe abnormalities in cortical cytoarchitecture and several developmentally regulated proteins in the hippocampal region suggesting abnormal neuronal migration, differentiation, and/or cell pruning; and (6) studies of neurodegeneration and neural injury find a general lack of neurodegenerative disease lesions or ongoing astrocytosis that would indicate post-maturational neural injury.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Pediatric brain tumor ; Primitive ; neuroectodermal tumpor ; Trk receptor ; Neurotrophin ; Cell differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Medulloblastomas are highly malignant and poorly understood childhood neoplasms. To determine if neurotrophins might influence the phenotypic properties of medulloblastoma in a paracrine or autocrine manner, 51 pediatric brain tumors including 20 biopsy specimens of these primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) and 31 other pediatric brain tumors were studied. Immunohistochemistry was used with antibodies to nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and NT-3, their cognate high affinity receptors as well as to neuronal and glial markers. TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC were observed in 5 (25%), 8 (40%), and 17 (85%), respectively, of these medulloblastomas while NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were observed in 6 (30%), 8 (40%), and 3 (15%), respectively, and antibodies to neurofilament (NF) and glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) stained 16 (80%) and 11 (55%), respectively. TrkA and NGF were not observed in the same biopsy samples, while TrkB and BDNF were co-distributed in 6 of the cases, all of which expressed NF proteins. TrkC and NT-3 were co-distributed in 3 of the medulloblastomas, and these areas overlapped with NF protein-positive tumor cells in all 3 cases. In contrast to medulloblastomas, TrkA and NGF co-distributed in other pediatric brain tumors, and both Trk receptors and their neurotrophins co-distributed with GFAP-positive tumor cells in 13 (42%) of the non-PNET pediatric brain tumors. The absence of medulloblastomas that contain NGF and TrkA is consistent with in vitro data demonstrating that NGF-mediated TrkA signaling induces apoptosis. Finally, this study also suggests that BDNF and NT-3 may act in a paracrine or autocrine manner through TrkB and TrkC receptors, respectively, to induce neuronal differentiation in medulloblastomas.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Intermediate filaments ; Medulloblastoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Immunoblotting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two methods of determining intermediate filament protein (IFP) expression by primitive brain tumors of childhood were compared using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to three classes of IFP. In addition to a controlled immunohistochemical study, a group of these tumors was subjected to direct immunologic assay of tumor-extracted IFP using the western blot method. Western blots of IFP extracted from ten prospectively microdissected brain tumors revealed no NF200 or NF150 in any tumor. Traces of NF68, VFP, and GFP were detected by this sensitive method in four, three, and six cases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry, using the same monoclonal antibodies on adjacent tumor sections, yielded results significantly different from the immunoblotting method: no NF proteins or VFP were detected, but immunoreactive GFP could be seen in a small percentage of cells in each case. A retrospective study of 46 primitive tumors, using only immunohistochemistry, showed GFP to be the most common source of immunopositivity (38 cases), followed by VFP (15 cases), but most positive cells were judged to be reactive astrocytes. NF protein was not detected except in three cases in which extremely rare cells had morphological features of neurons. Cells which were clearly malignant, and which constituted the majority of cells in a microscopic field, were devoid of any IFP immunoreactivity. The advantages and limitations of each method of IFP detection in this group of primitive tumors and the implications of the apparent paucity of mature neural IFP in these tumors are discussed.
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