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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Densitometry — Calcaneus — Lifestyle — Exercise — Calcium intake.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract: Ultrasonometry is increasingly used to assess bone characteristics. A group of 1412 women with a mean age of 57 years attended a screening examination in a Japanese city. Seventy-four percent of participants were postmenopausal. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and Stiffness index (SI) of the calcaneus were measured; subjects also completed a questionnaire examining lifestyle factors; anthropometric data were recorded. Analysis showed that the strongest predictors of decreased BUA, SOS, and SI were increased age and menopausal status. Higher body mass index and current participation in exercise or sports were significant predictors of increased BUA, SOS, and SI in a multivariate model. Higher calcium intake predicted increased BUA (P= 0.004) and missing meals predicted a lower SOS (P= 0.019). This study suggests that dietary factors as well as physical activity influence bone characteristics assessed by QUS. QUS may be a suitable technique to assess the effect of lifestyle changes on bone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Key words Unilateral spatial ; neglect ; Frontal lobe ; Cerebrovascular accident ; Exploratory-motor tasks ; Perceptual-sensory tasks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study is to report the preliminary findings of a traditional battery of tests and our original battery capable of assessing the presence of components and extent of lesions in patients with unilateral spatial neglect. Thirty patients who had unilateral spatial neglect with a stroke in the right hemisphere were assessed for unilateral spatial neglect on exploratory-motor (E-M) tasks, visual-counting (V-C) tasks, and traditional neglect batteries at least 4 weeks after the onset. Other neuropsychological tests and computed tomography were also performed to investigate the relationship with neglect. A factor analysis showed that our tasks loaded significantly on three factors. E-M neglect was found in 16 patients, and V-C neglect in 22 patients with unilateral spatial neglect. There were high correlations between E-M neglect and motor paralysis, word fluency, backward digit span and motor impersistence. There were high correlations between V-C neglect and visual-field defect, line bisection, line cancellation and figure copying. Lesions in the frontal lobe, caudate, insula, and anterior portion of the paraventricular white matter were commonly associated with E-M neglect. Lesions in the occipital lobe were also associated with V-C neglect. We suggest that unilateral neglect is not a single phenomenon, but rather involves several different components. We propose that E-M and V-C tasks are useful methods for evaluating the extent of lesions in patients with unilateral spatial neglect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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