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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Acremonium coenophialum ; Epichloë typhina ; β-tubulin gene ; Electroporative transformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Acremonium coenophialum is a mutualistic mycosymbiont and natural agent of biological protection of the widely distributed grass Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue). An electroporative transformation system was developed for A. coenophialum. Segments of DNA 5′ to the β-tubulin gene (tub2) of the closely related ascomycete Epichloë typhina, fused to the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin B phosphotransferase, conferred hygromycin resistance when introduced into A. coenophialum by electroporation. The incorporation of the Emericella nidulans trpC terminator greatly increased protoplast germination on selective medium and improved transformation efficiencies 30–200% depending on the plasmid construct. Plasmid pCSN43, which incorporates the trpC controlling elements for hph expression, was also used to transform A. coenophialum. Southern blot analysis of ten pCSN43 transformants indicated the possibility of random integration of this vector into the genome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Rhizopus oryzae is the most common etiologic agent of mucormycosis. Clinical and animal model data clearly demonstrate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to develop mucormycosis. Therefore, the high affinity iron permease (rFTR1) which encodes a protein required to scavenge iron from the environment, is highly likely to be a critical determinant of virulence for R. oryzae. We have cloned rFTR1 by using a PCR approach relying on degenerate primers designed from the conserved regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae high affinity iron permease. Sequence analysis of a 2.0 kb EcoRI genomic clone revealed a single open reading frame of 1107 bp that lacked introns. The putative rFtr1p had significant homology to known fungal high affinity iron permeases from Candida albicans (46% identity) and S. cerevisiae (44% identity). In R. oryzae, rFTR1 was expressed in iron-depleted and not in iron-rich media. Finally, rFTR1 restored the ability of an ftr1 null mutant of S. cerevisiae to grow on iron-limited medium and to take up radiolabeled iron, whereas S. cerevisiae transformed with the empty vector did not. These data demonstrate that we have cloned the gene encoding a R. oryzae high affinity iron permease and the putative rFtr1p is involved in assimilation of iron from iron-depleted environments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Conidial pigment biosynthesis is an important virulence factor in Aspergillus fumigatus, a human fungal pathogen. Involvement of DHN–melanin pathway in the biosynthesis of A. fumigatus conidial pigment implies that the Alb1p polyketide synthase (PKS) is a 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN) synthase. The Alb1p, however, shows higher sequence similarity to a naphthopyrone synthase than to a T4HN synthase. To clarify the function of Alb1p, the alb1 gene was overexpressed in a heterologous host Aspergillus oryzae. The Alb1p PKS product in this heterologous expression system was identified as heptaketide naphthopyrone instead of pentaketide T4HN. The data suggest that Alb1p is a naphthopyrone synthase.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Aspergillus fumigatus is an important pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. The fungus propagates by conidia, which are the infectious structures inhaled by the human host. Opsonophagocytosis is thought to contribute to clearance of the inhaled conidia, a process that is facilitated by complement deposition on conidial surfaces. We now show that conidial colour mutants exhibit significant increases in C3 binding capacity compared with wild type. A reddish-pink mutation that led to enhanced C3 binding was complemented by a cosmid clone. A 3.3 kb DNA fragment from the subsequently rescued cosmid was sufficient to restore the bluish-green conidial pigment. The bluish-green transformant exhibited a level of C3 binding similar to that of the parental strain. A gene, designated arp1, was responsible for the complementation. Comparison of the genomic and cDNA sequences of arp1 revealed that it has two introns and encodes a putative protein of 168 amino acids. Arp1 is very similar to scytalone dehydratase, an enzyme involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin synthesis in Colletotrichum lagenarium and Magnaporthe grisea. Northern hybridization analysis revealed that arp1 is developmentally regulated, being expressed during conidiation. Disruption of arp1 resulted in reddish-pink conidia and increased C3 binding. Our studies suggest that arp1 modulates the bluish-green pigmentation of conidia as well as complement deposition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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