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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Interleukin 13 — Polymorphonuclear neutrophil — Prostaglandin E2— Cyclooxygenase 2 — Neutral esterase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective: To investigate whether interleukin-13 (IL-13) can affect arachidonic acid metabolism and phagocytic activity of normal human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN).¶Methods: Normal human PMN (1 × 106 cells/ml) were incubated with different concentrations of IL-13 (0.1–10 ng/ml) for a variety of times (30–120 min). Phagocytosis and intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The concentration of PGE2 in the PMN cultured supernatants was determined by EIA.¶Results: We found that IL-13 at an optimal concentration of 1 ng/ml significantly enhanced COX-2 gene expression and PGE2 production (121.57 ± 22.17 pg/ml in IL-13 stimulation vs. 73.16 ± 11.72 pg/ml in controls) by PMN. In addition, IL-13 stimulated PMN phagocytosis via increased complement receptor type 1 (CR1) and type 3 (CR3), but not IgG Fcγ receptor type 3 (FcγRIII). The cytoplasmic neutral esterase activity of PMN was also enhanced by IL-13 stimulation for 24 h.¶Conclusions: These results suggest that IL-13 can stimulate PMN and modulates the inflammatory reactions via the cyclooxygenase pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The instabilities associated with a high Mach number perpendicular shock are reexamined in light of recent enhanced understanding of the Earth's bow shock. The insights provided by both the ISEE observations and hybrid simulations are reviewed and subsequently incorporated into the instability analyses. The discussion of the instabilities is divided according to their location in the shock layer. In the regions in front of and at the shock transition the cross-field instabilities are subdivided into low frequency modes (e.g. ion-ion streaming, kinetic cross-field streaming, drift lower hybrid instabilities) and high frequency modes (electron cyclotron drift, ion sound and electron whistler instabilities). Further downstream various ion ring-like and anisotropy driven instabilities are considered. In each case the instability analysis is reviewed and recent developments are emphasized. Implications of these results concerning the wave signatures and plasma heating and acceleration are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Plasmas 1 (1994), S. 636-642 
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Analytical equilibria for axisymmetric plasmas with an anisotropic energetic-particle component are obtained by expansions in the inverse aspect ratio and core- and hot-plasma betas. Upon the analytical equilibria, the energetic-particle-modified Mercier criterion [L.-J. Zheng and S.-T. Tsai, Phys. Fluids B 4, 1416 (1992)] is evaluated. A drift-nonreversed energetic-particle component is shown to make stabilizing terms to the criterion, which originate from the additional Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and the stabilizing kinetic energy contributed by the energetic particles. The results confirm that interchange modes in tokamaks can be stabilized by properly introducing drift-nonreversed energetic particles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 4 (1992), S. 3329-3335 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The ELMO snaky torus concept [Furth and Boozer (private communication, 1983)] is investigated in a helically symmetric model with low beta and large aspect ratio (the curvature radius of the magnetic axis over the plasma radius). The equilibria are obtained by expansions in the inverse aspect ratio and plasma beta. Application of the energetic-particle- modified Mercier criterion [Zheng and Tsai, Phys. Fluids B 4, 1416 (1992)] to the analytical equilibria confirms that the interchange mode can be stabilized in helically symmetric systems in the low-beta regime by suitably introducing drift-nonreverse energetic particles. The results show that, for effective stabilization, it is better that the pressure profile of the energetic component depend on the radius quadratically, and peak at midplane in the poloidal angle, and the volume occupied by the energetic particles, the aspect ratio, and the ratio of the curvature to the torsion of the magnetic axis should be large when the energetic particles are drift nonreverse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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