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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract For evaluation of the clinical application of immunoassay for nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22 immunoassay) and urinary cytology for early diagnosis and detection of bladder cancer in patients with hematuria and/or a previous history of bladder cancer, 209 urine samples obtained from 137 patients presenting episodes of hematuria or a history of bladder cancer were assayed for NMP22 levels and/or prepared for cytology examination. Biopsy was performed when any visible tumor was identified during cystoscopy examination. The median NMP22 concentrations measured in samples taken from patients with active bladder cancer, from patients with a history of bladder cancer but no active disease, from patients with hematuria, and from healthy volunteers were 18.95, 5.45, 6.39, and 3.75 U/ml, respectively. The urinary NMP22 level recorded for patients with urothelial carcinoma was significantly higher than that noted for individuals without active disease. The sensitivity of the NMP22 assay and of urinary cytology in diagnosing bladder cancer was 69% and 67%, respectively. In contrast, the specificity of these two diagnostic modalities reached 72% and 93%, respectively. The NMP22 assay is slightly more sensitive but less specific than urinary cytology in detecting bladder cancer. This study indicates that determination of urinary NMP22 levels is a useful and noninvasive tool for the detection of bladder cancer because of its high sensitivity. The urinary NMP22 assay may be used as a first-line routine screening method; however, it cannot replace the use of urinary cytology because of its lower specificity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; database ; prognosis ; Taiwan ; young age
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between April 1990 and December 1997, 811 consecutive patients with 830 newly diagnosed breast cancers having their primary treatments in our institution were included in this study. Sixty three percent of breast cancer patients were premenopausal. The early-onset breast cancer (age ≤ 40) composed 29.3% of all patients. The five-year survival rate of all patients was 80.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.2–84.6%). The five-year overall survival rate for stage 0 was 95.7% (95% CI, 87.3–100%), stage I, 93.9% (95% CI, 88.9–98.9%), stage II, 88.5% (95% CI, 82.0–95.1%), stage III, 65.0% (95% CI, 54.0–75.9%), and stage IV, 18.5% (95% CI, 3.4–33.7%). Multivariate analysis of primary operable breast cancer revealed that axillary lymph node involvement, high nuclear grade and early-onset breast cancer (age ≤ 40) were poor prognostic factors. The early-onset breast cancer had a more aggressive clinical behavior than that of the older age group, their five-year disease-free survival rates for stage I, stage II and stage III diseases being only 64.7%, 66.5%, and 43.3%, respectively. In these patients the only meaningful prognostic factor was extensive axillary lymph node metastasis (≥10). In summary, breast cancer patients in Taiwan tend to be younger than their counterpart in western countries. The early-onset breast cancer had poorer prognostic features for all stages comparing to the older age group. Standard pathologic factors are not good predictors of their outcome. For these patients new biologic markers need to be sought to distinguish between high and low risk and the treatment strategy for them should be guided by the aggressive characteristics of the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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