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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antitumor and antimetastatic activities of a thymic factor, thymostimulin (TP-1), with or without cyclophosphamide (CPA) were examined in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL). Tumor growth was followed by determining the tumor diameter after tumor implantation. TP-1 given to mice every 2 days after tumor implantation significantly inhibited tumor growth without affecting the survival rate. For induction of spontaneous pulmonary metastases, 3LL cells were implanted into the footpads of mice, and the implanted tumor was removed on day 9. The antimetastatic effect of TP-1 on pulmonary metastases after removal of the primary tumor was evaluated by counting the number of pulmonary surface nodules. TP-1 showed antimetastatic activity depending on its time of administration and dose. Combined therapy with TP-1 plus CPA significantly prolonged the survival of mice with pulmonary metastases. The cytolytic activities of spleen cells on 3LL cells were enhanced in mice treated with TP-1 and/or CPA and the cytolytic activity of nonadherent spleen cells, the T-cell population, was enhanced. The role of cytolytic spleen cells in inhibiting and preventing metastases was discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) was induced by feeding male F344 rats on a 5% casein diet for 7 weeks. At appropriate times, rats from control (20% casein diet) and PCM groups were killed and alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The functional integrity of the AM was determined by measuring their ability to become tumoricidal on treatment with macrophage activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or multilamellar liposomes containing MDP or its lipophilic analog, MTP-PE. After 5 and 7 weeks, the numbers of lavaged AM per gram body weight of rats were much higher in the PCM group than in the control group. In week 3, AM from the PCM group showed spontaneous tumoricidal activity against syngeneic tumor cells, but in weeks 5 and 7 they did not. However, AM from PCM rats behaved the same way as controls in their response to activation stimuli in vitro with multilamellar liposomes containing synthetic MDP or MTP-PE. These data show that PCM affects the number of AM, but that AM from rats in a state of PCM become tumoricidal in response to activation stimuli in vitro.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary FK-565 (heptanoyl-γ-d-Glu-(l-meso-a, ε-A2pm (l)-d-AlaOH) is a synthetic acyltripeptide closely resembling cell wall peptidoglycan peptides of Streptomyces in structure. Alveolar macrophages (AM) lavaged from lungs of F344 rats were activated by in vitro treatment with FK-565 and its derivatives at concentrations of 1–50 μg/ml medium, and the activated AM killed syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma cells. When FK-565 and related compounds were encapsulated in multilamellar (MLV) liposomes composed of phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidylserine, dose-response experiments showed that they were about 800 times more effective than the free compounds in activating AM. Liposome-encapsulated FK-565 and its analogs caused significant activation of AM within 4 h. These data indicated that acyltripeptide and its analogs encapsulated in liposomes are more efficient than the free compounds in rendering AM tumoricidal.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. A histologic study of experimental sporotrichosis in mice was carried out. The reaction of tissue and the structure of the tissue phase of the organism in untreated controls and in mice treated with amphotericin B and griseofulvin were compared. 2. Considerable differences existed in the lesions and the number of organisms in the different organs; there was also variation in relation to the duration of the experiment. 3. Hyphal elements in the tissue in experimental sporotrichosis were observed for the first time.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experimental studies with 10 soil strains, 11 dog strains, and 10 human strains ofHistoplasma in hamsters and in mice are described. Mortality rates in animals are compared and histopathologic findings and cultural results are described. Three strains seem to show more morphologic variability and less virulence for animals than others. All strains ofH. capsulatum appear pathogenic in animals, regardless of the source of the strains.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7233
    Keywords: metastasis ; tumor cell arrest ; coagulation ; fibrinolysis ; platelet ; host defense
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Most metastases in patients occur as a result of hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells (1–3). This process of metastasis is complex and consists of several steps, foremost of which is the arrest of circulating emboli in capillary beds and the formation of a thrombus at that site (4–5). Thrombus formation in the metastasis of human cancer was described first by Billroth in 1878. It was reported that the organization of tumor cell emboli, and the subsequent penetration of tumor cells into the capillary wall, was the first stage of metastasis. Since then, many investigations and observations have been made clinically as well as experimentally to clarify the process (or mechanisms) of tumor cell arrest and how to inhibit it. Coagulative and fibrinolytic pathways were believed to have a main role in thrombus formation (6, 7). However, other factors responsible for the relationship between tumor cells and the host must be also considered. Elegant and extensive studies by Fidler and Kripke (8) demonstrated that development of metastasis is not a random process, but a selection process of specialized subpopulations of highly metastatic cells within the primary tumors. Biochemical constituents and ionic properties on cell surfaces, deformability or locomotive activities of tumor cells, as well as thrombo-plastic-fibrinolytic activities, are also important factors determining the arrest patterns of circulating tumor cells. On the other hand, host defense factors against tumor cells in the bloodstream have been attracting much attention recently in tumor immunology. Host defense factors relating the arrest of tumor cells to the establishment of metastatic foci seemed difficult to define, since many studies showed contradictory data concerning the influence of immune response on tumor cell arrest (9, 10). Hemodynamic abnormality may also influence the arrest of tumor cells in the circulation (5). Hypercoagulability induced from host tissues is greatly associated with the arrest patterns (11, 12). Platelet activities might affect thrombus formation (7, 13). Nevertheless, exact explanations of the process or mechanisms inhibiting or enhancing the arrest of tumor cells after hematogenous dissemination have not been obtained. In any event, for cancer treatment, it is important to determine which substances inhibit the arrest of circulating tumor cells and how to prevent hematogenous metastasis. In this review, we will focus upon coagulative and fibrinolytic processes and then upon substances that inhibit the arrest of circulating tumor cells. Furthermore, some comments on the possible clinical applications of inhibitory substances for prevention of cancer metastasis are added.
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